Vishvamitra proposes the marriages of Bharata ad Shatrughna with the two daughters of Kushadhvaja, the younger brother of Janaka. This being a welcome offer, Janaka accords his immediate consent. Then Dasharatha proceeds with the initiatory rituals for the bridegrooms and donates cows and riches.
तमुक्तवंतं वैदेहं विश्वामित्रो महामुनिः |
उवाच वचनं वीरं वसिष्ठसहितो नृपम् || १-७२-१
1. mahaamuniH vishvaamitraH = eminent-saint, Vishvamitra; vasiSThasahitaH = together with Vashishta; uktavantam = to one who said [about his lineage, Janaka]; viiram = valiant one; tam vaideham nR^ipam = to him, Videha, king - Janaka; uvaaca vacanam = said, words.
Then the eminent-saint Vishvamitra together with Vashishta said these words to Janaka, the valiant king of Videha, who has just said about his lineage. [1-72-1]
अचिंत्यान्यप्रमेयाणि कुलानि नरपुंगव |
इक्ष्वाकूणां विदेहानां नैषां तुल्योऽस्ति कश्चन || १-७२-२
2. narapungava = oh best one among men; ikSvaakuuNaam videhaanaam = of Ikshvaku-s and Videha-s; kulaani = dynasties; acintyaani = not imaginably [admirable]; aprameyaaNi = not measurably [distinguished]; eSaam tulyaH = comparable king to them - kings of dynasties; kashcana = anyone; na asti = is not there.
The Ikshvaku-s and Videha-s are unimaginably admirable and immeasurably distinguished dynasties, oh, Janaka, the best one among all men, there is no single king comparable to one from these dynasties... [1-72-2]
सदृशो धर्मसंबन्धः सदृशो रूपसंपदा |
रामलक्ष्मणयो राजन् सीता चोर्मिलया सह || १-७२-३
3. raajan = oh king; uurmilayaa saha siitaa = Seetha with Urmila; raamalakSmaNayoH = to Rama, Lakshmana; this espousal is; sadR^ishaH = behovely; dharmasambandhaH = righteous alliance [espousal for dynastical prestige]; ruupasampadaa sadR^ishaH ca = befitting to winsome charms [of brides and bridegrooms], even.
Oh, king Janaka, these espousals of Seetha with Rama and Urmila with Lakshmana is behovely to each other's dynastical prestige and even it is befitting to the winsome charms of the brides and bridegrooms, but that being so... [1-72-3]
वक्तव्यं च नरश्रेष्ठ श्रूयतां वचनं मम |
भ्राता यवीयान् धर्मज्ञ एष राजा कुशध्वजः || १-७२-४
4. narashreSTha = oh the best man [grand sire, that being so]; mama vaktavyam ca = mentionable [advisable] by me also; vacanam shruuyataam = words, be heard; yaviiyaan bhraataa = younger, brother; eSaH raajaa kushadhvajaH = this, king, Kushadhvaja; dharmaj~naH = probity, at home in.
Oh, grand sire, you may listen to my words of advise... this younger brother of yours, king Kushadhvaja, is at home in every kind of probity... [1-72-4]
अस्य धर्मात्मनो राजन् रूपेणाप्रतिमं भुवि |
सुताद्वयं नरश्रेष्ठ पत्न्यर्थं वरयामहे || १-७२-५
5. raajan = oh king; narashreSTha = oh grand sire, Janaka; ruupeNa bhuvi apratimam = by looks not matchable [nonpareil] in world; asya dharmaatmanaH = of this, right-minded [Kushadhvaja's]; sutaadvayam = pair of daughters; patnyartham varayaamahe = we choose for the purpose of wife[to pair off with Bharata and Shatrughna] .
Oh, king, the pair of daughters of this right-minded Kushadhvaja is nonpareil in comeliness in this world, hence, oh, grand sire, we choose to pair them off with Bharata and Shatrughna... [1-72-5]
भरतस्य कुमारस्य शत्रुघ्नस्य च धीमतः |
वरयेम सुते राजंस्तयोरर्थे महात्मनोः || १-७२-६
6. raajan = oh king; kumaarasya = young man; bharatasya = for Bharata; dhiimataH shatrughnasya ca = for smart Shatrughna, even; mahaatmanoH tayoH arthe = for the sake of them, the right-minded ones [honourable ones] ; sute varayema = [brothers] daughters, we opt.
Oh, king, for the sake of those two honourable boys, for that young man Bharata and for that smart man Shatrughna, we opt your brother's daughters... [1-72-6]
पुत्रा दशरथस्येमे रूपयौवनशालिनः |
लोकपालसमाः सर्वे देवतुल्यपराक्रमाः || १-७२-७
7. ime dasharathasya putraaH = these, Dasharatha's [four] sons; sarve = all; ruupayauvanashaalinaH = having handsomeness, youthfulness; lokapaalasamaaH = equal to rulers of world; devatulyaparaakramaaH = vie with valor of god [Vishnu's valour] .
All these four sons of Dasharatha have handsomeness and youthfulness, and they are equal to the four rulers of the world from four quarters, and their valour vies with the valour of God Vishnu... [1-72-7]
उभयोरपि राजेन्द्र संबन्धेनानुबध्यताम् |
इक्ष्वाकोः कुलमव्यग्रं भवतः पुण्यकर्मणः || १-७२-८
8. raajendra = oh best king; ikSvaakoH [kulam] = Ikshvaku's [is the impeccable dynasty]; puNyakarmaNaH bhavataH [kulam] api = [having] pious deeds, your [dynasty,] as well - is an immaculate one; ubhayoH = both; kulam = dynasty; sambandhena avyagram anubadhyataam = let them be compactly interlocked by alliance [wed-locks].
"Oh, best king, let both these dynasties of yours, the impeccable dynasty of Ikshvaku-s and the immaculate dynasty of yours as well, be interlocked by these wedlock-s..." Thus Vishvamitra advised Janaka. [1-72-8]
विश्वामित्रवचः श्रुत्वा वसिष्ठस्य मते तदा |
जनकः प्रांजलिर्वाक्यमुवाच मुनिपुंगवौ || १-७२-९
9. tadaa = then; vasiSThasya mate [sthivaa] = Vashishta's, concurrence [abiding with]; vishvaamitravacaH shrutvaa = on hearing Vishvamitra's words; janakaH praanjaliH = Janaka, with adjoined palms[ reverently]; munipungavau = to two eminent-saints - Vishvamitra and Vashishta; vaakyam uvaaca = said sentence.
On hearing the words of Vishvamitra that have the concurrence of Vashishta then Janaka reverently said this to those two eminent-saints. [1-72-9]
कुलं धन्यमिदं मन्ये येषां तौ मुनिपुंगवौ |
सदृशं कुलसंबन्धं यदाज्ञापयथः स्वयम् || १-७२-१०
10. yeSaam = by which; [naH = for us]; sadR^isham = befitting; kulasambandham = dynastical alliance; tau munipungavau = you two, eminent-saints; svayam = personally; yat = by which reason; aaj~naapayathaH = you order - you bid fair; such; idam = this dynasty; kulam dhanyam manye = I opine that dynasty [of mine] is highly honoured.
By which reason you two eminent-saints personally bid fair to this befitting proposal, thereby I opine that my dynasty is highly honoured... [1-72-10]
एवं भवतु भद्रं वः कुशध्वजसुते इमे |
पत्न्यौ भजेतां सहितौ शत्रुघ्नभरतावुभौ || १-७२-११
11. evam bhavatu = so, be it; vaH bhadram = you, be safe; ime kushadhvajasute = these, Kushadhvaja's daughters; sahitau = being together [brothers in perfect accord, paired brothers]; shatrughnabharatau = to Shatrughna and Bharata; ubhau = two of them; patnyau bhajetaam = they devout themelves as wives.
So be it! Safe betides you all! Let the pair of Kushdhvaja's daughters, namely Maandavi, Shrutakiirti, devout themselves as a pair of wives to the paired brothers, namely Bharata and Shatrughna, respectively... [1-72-11]
एकाह्ना राजपुत्रीणां चतसॄणां महामुने |
पाणीन् गृह्णन्तु चत्वारो राजपुत्रा महाबलाः || १-७२-१२
12. mahaamune = oh eminent-saint Vishvamitra; mahaabalaaH = great mighty [mettlesome]; catvaaraH raajaputraa = four, king's sons; ekaahnaa = in one daylight; catasR^INaam raajaputriiNaam = four of the, king's daughters; paaNiin gR^ihNantu = take hands into hand [i.e., marry the princesses, assume husband-ship.]
Oh, eminent-saint Vishvamitra, let the palms of four princesses be taken in the palms of these four mettlesome princes in marriage, in the light of one day... [1-72-12]
उत्तरे दिवसे ब्रह्मन् फल्गुनीभ्यां मनीषिणः |
वैवाहिकं प्रशंसन्ति भगो यत्र प्रजापतिः || १-७२-१३
13. brahman = oh Brahman; phalguniibhyaam = in the day where both Phalguni stars are available; yatra = on which day; prajaapatiH bhagaH [devataa] = a deity for progeny, namely Bhaga [is the presiding deity]; uttare divase = later, day [later part of the day, or, when the star post-Phalguni is ruling]; vaivaahikam = for wedding [ceremonies on such a day]; maniiSiNaH = savants; prashamsanti = acclaim.
"Oh, Brahman, the savants acclaim that part of the day as the best for wedding ceremonies when both of the pre-Phalguni and post-Phalguni stars are available, and on such a time where post-Phalguni is ruling, for which Bhaga is the presiding deity for progeny..." So said Janaka to the marriage party. [1-72-13]
There is a lot of commentary from the viewpoint of astrology regarding these stars and days of this marriage. Some have said that uttare divase 'on best day...' phalguni= puurva phalguni 'pre-Phalguni... on the best day under pre-Phalguni star...' which usually does not happen, but it is also said to be correct by Maheshvara Tiirtha, as the Moon will be in the 12th house at that time, so the marriage is agreeable...' However the stars for best results of marriages are: rohiNii-mR^igashiirShyaaNi uttaraphalgunii-svaati iti vivaahasya nakShatraaNi | bodhaayana suutraaNi
एवमुक्त्वा वचः सौम्यं प्रत्युत्थाय कृतांजलिः |
उभौ मुनिवरौ राजा जनको वाक्यमब्रवीत् || १-७२-१४
14. janakaH raajaa = Janaka, king; evam saumyam vacaH uktvaa = thus, on saying gracious words; prati utthaaya = in turn, getting up [from throne]; kR^itaanjaliH = reverently; ubhau munivarau = to both, eminent saints; vaakyam abraviit = said sentence.
On saying those gracious words thus, king Janaka got up from his throne and coming nigh of both of the eminent-saints, Vishvamitra and Vashishta, reverently said this sentence. [1-72-14]
परो धर्मः कृतो मह्यं शिष्योऽस्मि भवतोः सदा |
इमान्यासनमुख्यानि आस्यतां मुनिपुंगवौ || १-७२-१५
15. mahyam paraH dharmaH kR^itaH = in my respect, excellent, kind deed [beau geste,] is done; sadaa bhavatoH shiSyaH asmi = for ever, I am - I remain your proselyte; munipungavau = oh, eminent-saints; imaani aasanamukhyaani = these, important [thrones] seats; aasyataam = take a seat [preside over.]
You two, oh, eminent-saints, have done an excellent generous act in my respect, thus I will ever remain your proselyte... you may please preside over these thrones, that of mine, my brother's, and that of Dasharatha... [1-72-15]
The kind deed done by the two sages, Vishvamitra and Vashishta, is fetching right husbands for his daughters, and for his brother's daughters, without flattening his own flatties. And this sitting on the three thrones is for assuming symbolic rulership on the three kingdoms, Ayodhya, Mithila, and Saamkaasya, in getting the marriages performed without a hitch.
यथा दशरथस्येयं तथाऽयोध्या पुरी मम |
प्रभुत्वे नास्ति सन्देहो यथार्हं कर्तुमर्हथ || १-७२-१६
16. iyam = this [city Mithila]; dasharathasya = Dasharatha's yathaa = as to how it [belongs to]; ayodhyaa purii mama tathaa = Ayodhya, city, to me, likewise [Ayodhya belongs to me]; prabhutve sandehaH na asti = in governance, doubt is not there [no need for hesitancy]; yathaarham kartum arhatha = as per, aptness, apt of you to make happen.
"As to how this city Mithila appertains to Dasharatha, in the same way city of Ayodhya is mine... and there shall be no hesitancy for you two sages in governance on these three kingdoms, thus it will be apt of you to make the marriages happen as aptly as you can..." So said Janaka to the sages. [1-72-16]
तथा ब्रुवति वैदेहे जनके रघुनंदनः |
राजा दशरथो हृष्टः प्रत्युवाच महीपतिम् || १-७२-१७
17. vaidehe janake = Videha's, Janaka; tathaa bruvati = while talking in that way [in such a hobnobbing way] ; raghunandanaH raajaa dasharathaH hR^iSTaH = Raghu's legatee, king, Dasharatha, is gladdened; and; mahiipatim pratyuvaaca = replied to king Janaka.
The legatee of Raghu-s king Dasharatha is gladdened while the legatee of Videha is talking in such a hobnobbing way, and he replied king Janaka in this way. [1-72-17]
युवामसंख्येयगुणौ भ्रातरौ मिथिलेश्वरौ |
ऋषयो राजसंघाश्च भवद्भ्यामभिपूजिताः || १-७२-१८
18. mithileshvarau = oh kings of Mithila [Kushadhvaja included]; bhraatarau = two brothers; yuvaam = you both; asankhyeyaguNau = not estimable [good] manners; bhavadbhyaam = by you [are garnered, treasured]; R^iSayaH = sages; raajasanghaaH ca = kings' coteries, also; abhipuujitaaH = reverenced.
Oh, kings of Mithila, Janaka and Kushadhvaja, you two brothers have reverenced inestimable sages and coteries of kings, as such inestimable good manners are treasured in both of you... [1-72-18]
Annex: 'As said in good sayings like, 'good company and good discourse are the very sinews of virtue...' as such, your abilities in making these marriages happen will edge out our limited capabilities... and if we commit any mistake unwittingly, that may besmirch your unblemished personality, because for the first time I am marrying my sons, you shall pardon... by the way, you have performed many marriages, concluding that every bride is your own daughter-like, thus we hear... thus, your sitting complacently on intrusting all the works of marriages to us, is infeasible... so, you do all the works and we sit comfortably seeing the celebrations...'
स्वस्ति प्राप्नुहि भद्रं ते गमिष्यामः स्वमालयम् |
श्राद्धकर्माणि विधिवत् विधास्येति चाब्रवीत् || १-७२-१९
19. svasti praapnuhi = gain [enjoy] blessedness; te bhadram = you be safe; svam aalayam gamiSyaamaH = we depart to our visitatorial-palace; shraaddhakarmaaNi = tributary rituals; vidhivat = customarily; vidhaasya [vidhaasyaami] = I will carry out; iti ca abraviit = thus, also, said.
"Enjoy that blessedness! Let safe betide you! We now depart to our visitatorial-palace, and we shall customarily carry out the tributary rituals..." Dasharatha said thus. [1-72-19]
तमापृष्ट्वा नरपतिं राजा दशरथस्तदा |
मुनीन्द्रौ तौ पुरस्कृत्य जगामाशु महायशाः || १-७२-२०
20. tadaa = then; mahaayashaaH raajaa dasharathaH = highly renowned, king, Dasharatha; tam narapatim aapR^iSTvaa = on seeking [leave of absence] him, sovereign [Janaka] ; tau muniindrau puraskR^itya = keeping both eminent-saints afore; aashu jagaama = promptly, departed.
On seeking leave of absence from the sovereign of people, Janaka, that highly renowned king Dasharatha promptly departed from there, keeping both of the eminent-saints afore, namely Vishvamitra and Vashishta. [1-72-20]
स गत्वा निलयं राजा श्राद्धं कृत्वा विधानतः |
प्रभाते काल्यमुत्थाय चक्रे गोदानमुत्तमम् || १-७२-२१
21. saH raajaa = he that, king Dasharatha; nilayam gatvaa = on going to visitatorial-palace; vidhaanataH shraaddham kR^itvaa = procedurally undertaking tributary rituals; prabhaate = in [next] morning; utthaaya = on getting up; kaalyam = in opportune time; uttamam godaanam = in grand [way,] cow donation [samaavartana, snaataka, initiatory rituals]; cakre = he carried out.
King Dasharatha on going to his visitatorial-palace has procedurally undertaken the tributary rituals, and on getting up in the next morning, he carried out the initiatory rituals of marriages, in a grand way, in which donation of cows is a part. [1-72-21]
गवां शतसहस्रं च ब्राह्मणेभ्यो नराधिपः |
एकैकशो ददौ राजा पुत्रानुद्दिश्य धर्मतः || १-७२-२२
22. naraadhipaH raajaa = lord of people, king Dasharatha; putraan = for sons; ekaikashaH uddishya = intended for each, to each [of four sons] ; braahmaNebhyaH = to Brahmans; gavaam = cows; shatasahasram ca = hundred thousand, also; dharmataH dadau = righteously donated.
That lord of people king Dasharatha has righteously donated hundred thousand cows to Brahman-s, in the name of each of his four sons. [1-72-22]
सुवर्णशृंगाः संपन्नाः सवत्साः कांस्यदोहनाः |
गवां शतसहस्राणि चत्वारि पुरुषर्षभः || १-७२-२३
वित्तमन्यच्च सुबहु द्विजेभ्यो रघुनंदनः |
ददौ गोदानमुद्दिश्य पुत्रा पुत्रवत्सलः || १-७२-२४
23-24. puruSaRSabhaH = the bullish [best one] man; putravatsalaH = affectionate towards sons; raghunandanaH = Raghu's legatee; putraaNaam = sons'; godaanam uddishya = intended for donation of cow ; suvarNashR^ingayaH = golden casing horns; [su] sampannaaH = very abundant [milkers]; sa vatsaaH = with, calves; kaamsyadohanaaH = with bell metal milking jugs; gavaam = cows; catvaari = four; shatasahasraaNi = hundred thousands; anyat = other [kinds of]; subahu vittam ca = very many assets, also; dvijebhyaH dadau = donated to Brahman-s.
In that cow donation ceremony intended for his sons, he that best one among men and the one who is affectionate towards his sons, Dasharatha, the legatee of Raghu-s, has donated on behalf of each of his sons, four hundred thousand cows, that are abundant milkers, and that have golden casings on their horns, and that are with their calves, and along with milking jugs made with bell metal, and he even donated very many other kinds of assets to Brahmans. [1-72-23, 24]
सु सुतैः कृतगोदानैर्वृतः सः नृपतिस्तदा |
लोकपालैरिवाभाति वृतः सौम्यः प्रजापतिः || १-७२-२५
25. kR^itagodaanaiH = having performed cow donation [samaavartana, snaataka, initiatory ceremonies]; su sutaiH vR^itaH = encircling [amidst] with sons; saH nR^ipatiH tadaa = he, king, then; lokapaalaiH vR^itaH = world administrators [four principle deities presiding over the four quarters of world,] encircled; saumyaH prajaapatiH iva = like serene mankind's overlord [Brahma] ; aabhaati = shone forth.
On performing the cow donations and samaavartana, snaataka, the initiatory ceremonies of his sons, as well, he that serene king Dasharatha who is amidst the quartet of his sons, shone forth like serene Brahma, who is quartet-faced, with the quartet of Veda-s, and who is the overlord of mankind, amidst the quartet of presiding deities in the quartet of the world. [1-72-25]
The 'unnecessarily' repeated word 'quartet' refers to dharma where its manifestation is with four horns, catvaarii shR^ingaa, trayo asya paadaa, dve shiirSe... 'dharma's horns is a quartet, three are its feet, two are its heads...' so on. When read together with 23, 24 verses, the bullish Dasharatha is said to have the quartet of bullhorn like sons, who are being readied to administer dharma in the world.
इति वाल्मीकिरामायणे आदिकाव्ये बालकाण्डे द्विसप्ततितमः सर्गः
© May, 2003, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised : January 05]