Sumantra, the minister of King Dasharatha, details the importance of Sage Rishyasringa and beseeches the king to invite that sage to preside over the contemplated Vedic ritual, for that Sage's entry into any kingdom is auspicious for that land and people.
एतच्छ्रुत्वा रहः सूतो राजानमिदमब्रवीत् |
श्रूयतां तत् पुरावृत्तं पुराणे च मया श्रुतम् || १-९-१
1. etat shrutvaa suutaH = having heard all this, charioteer(Sumantra); raajaanam = to king [Dasharatha]; rahaH idam abraviit = in confidence, in this way, said; shruuyataam tat = I will tell, that; puraavR^ittam = an early legend; puraaNe ca mayaa shrutam = legendary narration, also, listened by me.
Sumantra, the charioteer and one of the misters of King Dasharatha, having heard all about the king's desire to perform a Vedic ritual, said this in confidence to king, "oh, king, I will tell an early legend, an early legendary narration that I listened... [1-9-1]
ऋत्विग्भिरुपदिष्टोऽयं पुरावृत्तो मया श्रुतः |
सनत्कुमारो भगवान् पूर्वं कथितवान् कथाम् || १-९-२
ऋषीणां सन्निधौ राजंस्तव पुत्रागमं प्रति |
2, 3a. raajan = oh King; R^itvigbhiH upadiSTaH = advised by Vedic scholars; ayam puraavR^ittaH = this is, happened[narrated] earlier; sanatkumaaraH bhagavaan = Sage Sanatkumara, godly one; puurvam kathitavaan kathaam = once, narrated, an account [about your progeny]; R^iSiiNaam sannidhau = of [other] sages, presence of; tava putraagamam prati = about arrival of, your, sons, about; mayaa shrutaH = heard by me.
"Oh, king, I have earlier heard of this present advice given to you by Vedic scholars, as godly Sage Sanatkumara has once narrated an account about the arrival of your sons in the presence of other sages, and sage Sanat Kumara said... [1-9-2, 3a]
काश्यपस्य च पुत्रोऽस्ति विभाण्डक इति श्रुतः || १-९-३
ऋष्यशृङ्ग इति ख्यातस्तस्य पुत्रो भविष्यति
स वने नित्यसंवृद्धो मुनिर्वनचरः सदा || १-९-४
3b, 4. kaashyapasya ca putraH asti = Sage Kashyapa has a son; vibhaaNDakaH iti shrutaH = thus known as Vibhaandaka; tasya putraH = his son [Vibhandaka's son,] will be; RishyasringaH iti khyaataH bhaviShyati = thus will be renowned as Rishyasringa; saH muniH vane nityasamvR^iddhaH = he, that saint [Rishyasringa,] always grown up in forest; vanacharaH sadaa = [that sage] Rishyasringa always forestdweller.
"He said that "Sage Kashyapa has a son known as Vibhaandaka, and his son will be the renowned Sage Rishyasringa, and that Sage Rishyasringa will grow up in forests, and will always be dwelling in forest... [1-9-3b, 4]
Here the word used by Sumantra is tava putraagamam , it renders as 'the arrival of your sons', meaning that sons of King Dasharatha arrive from Heavens, but not through an ordinary parturition. Even earlier in time to that of Dasharatha, Sage Sanatkumara predicted the 'arrival' of Vishnu as Rama. The birth-event associated with Rishyasringa's name is that he is born with a horn on the crown of his head. Thus he is named as Rishyasringa, i.e., em> R^iSi the Sage; shR^i~Nga horn; a Sage with a horn on his forehead at his birth time. This being the mythological import, he is an acme among sages, as shR^i~Nga also means a peak.
नान्यं जानाति विप्रेन्द्रो नित्यं पित्रनुवर्तनात् |
द्वैविध्यं ब्रहचर्यस्य भविष्यति महात्मनः || १-९-५
5. viprendraH = the best Brahman; na anyam jaanaati = not knowing others; nityam pitranuvartanaat = always abiding father; dvaividhyam = hindrance [two kinds]; brahmacharyasya = of his celibacy; bhaviSyati = he will be following/will occur to him; mahaatmanaH = to that great soul.
"Not knowing others, that Brahman the best, namely Rishyasringa, will always be abiding his father and he will follow celibacy of two kinds Brahmanical vows namely vratitva , praajaapatya ...
Not knowing others that Brahman the best, will always be abiding his father, lest his renowned celibacy always praised by the Brahmans, will be hindered. [1-9-5]
The word dvaividhyam also means two kinds of celibacy, vratitva and prajaapatyam. One, as a bachelor and the other after marriage, voluntarily distancing away from his wife on certain forbidden days like full moon and new moon days, during daytime, eclipses, and other astronomical occurrences and some more. This kind of self-imposed celibacy is one way of observing sustained family planning methods, instead of resorting to medicaments. Here, this word is more nearer to mean 'hindrance', than to mean the 'two way celibacy' as deciphered by some commentators.
लोकेषु प्रथितं राजन् विप्रैश्च कथितं सदा |
तस्यैवं वर्तमानस्य कालः समभिवर्तत || १-९-६
6. lokeSu prathitam = famous in the world; raajan = oh King; vipraiH cha kathitam sadaa = by Brahmans, praised, always; tasya evam vartamaanasya = him, thus, with that conduct; kaalaH samabhivartata = time, will pass on.
"In the world he becomes famous for his celibacy, oh king, and he will always be praised by Brahmans, and thus time will pass on with that kind of his conduct. [1-9-6]
अग्निं शुश्रूषमाणस्य पितरं च यशस्विनम् |
एतस्मिन्नेव काले तु रोमपादः प्रतापवान् || १-९-७
अङ्गेषु प्रथितो राजा भविष्यति महाबलः |
7, 8a. agnim = to Sacrificial Fire; shushruuShamaaNasya = while in servitor-ship of; pitaram cha = to his father, also; yashasvinam = prosperous one; etasmin eva = in this, only; kaale = meantime; prataapavaan = valiant one; raajaa = king; romapaadaH = Romapaada; angeShu = in Anga kingdom; prathitaH = famed one; bhaviShyati = will be there; mahaabalaH = very strong one.
Sage Rishyasringa looses no time with his servitor-ship to the Sacrificial Fire and also to his celebrated father, and during this period alone there will be a famed and very strong king Romapaada, a valiant in Anga country... [1-9-7, 8a]
तस्य व्यतिक्रमाद्राज्ञो भविष्यति सुदारुणा || १-९-८
अनावृष्ठिः सुघोरा वै सर्वभूतभयावहा |
8b, 9. tasya raaj~naH vyatikramaat = his, that king's, violation of righteousness; sughoraa = very devastating; sudaaruNaa = verily shocking; sarvabhuutabhayaavahaa = frightening one to all living beings; anaavR^iSTiH bhaviSyati = famine, will be there.
"But by a violation of righteousness of that king there will be a shocking and devastating famine in that country...[1-9-8b, 9a]
अनावृष्ट्यां तु वृत्तायां राजा दुःखसमन्वितः || १-९-९
ब्राह्मणान् श्रुतवृद्धांश्च समानीय प्रवक्ष्यति |
9b, 10a. anaavR^iSTyaam = due to drought; vR^ittaayaam = [famine] while besetting; raajaa = the king; duHkhasamanvitaH = afflicted with grim; braahmaNaan = Brahmans; shrutavriddhaan = in scriptures well versed ones[learned, scholars]; samaaniiya = on summoning; pravakShyati = addresses them.
"While the famine is besetting that king Roamapada will be afflicted with grim, and on summoning Brahmans and learned scholars he will address them... [1-9-9b. 10a]
भवन्तः श्रुतधर्माणो लोकचारित्रवेदिनः || १-९-१०
समादिशन्तु नियमं प्रायश्चित्तं यथा भवेत् |
10b, 11a. bhavantaH = all of you; shrutadharmaaNaH = well versed in rituals; lokachaaritravedinaH = knowers of world history; samaadishantu = order me; yathaa = as to how; niyamam = the procedure is; praayashchittam = for purification; bhavet = will be.
"All of you are well versed in rituals and knowers of the world history... order me how to how the purification from sin will be... [1-9-10b, 11a]
इत्युक्तास्ते ततो राज्ञा सर्वे ब्राह्मणसत्तमाः || १-९-११
वक्ष्यन्ति ते महीपालं ब्राह्मणा वेदपारगाः |
विभाण्डकसुतं राजन् सर्वोपायैरिहानय || १-९-१२
11b, 12. iti uktavaa te raaj~naa = thus, said by king to them; sarve braahmaNasattamaaH = to all those scholarly Brahmans; vedapaaragaaH braahmaNaaH = Veda scholars, Brahmans; mahiipaalam = to the king; te vakShyanti = they, will say; raajan = oh king; vibhaaNDakasutam = Sage Vibhandaka's son; sarvopaayaiH = by all methods; iha aanaya = here, you fetch.
"Thus said by king those scholarly Brahmans and Vedic scholars will say to the king, 'oh, king, son of Sage Vibhaandaka, namely Rishyasringa, is to be fetched by all methods... [1-9-11b, 12]
आनाय्य तु महीपाल ऋश्यशृङ्गं सुसत्कृतम् ।
विभाण्डकसुतं राजन् ब्राह्मणं वेदपारगम् ।
प्रयच्छ कन्यां शान्तां वै विधिना सुसमाहितः ॥१-९-१३
13. mahiipala = oh king; aanaayya = on bringing; R^iShyashR^ingam= Rishyasringa; vibhaaNDakasutam= Vibhaandaka's son; braahmaNam vedapaaragam= Brahman, Veda scholar; susatkR^itam= well honoured one; samaahitaH= with good care; kanyaam shaantaam vidhinaa prayacCha= girl [daughter,] Shanta, procedurally, you give [in marriage.]
"Oh! King, having brought Sage Rishyasringa and honouring him well with good care, procedurally give him your daughter Shanta in marriage to that Vedic Brahman and the son of Sage Vibhaandaka... [1-9-13]
तेषां तु वचनं श्रुत्वा राजा चिन्तां प्रपत्स्यते |
केनोपायेन वै शक्यमिहानेतुं स वीर्यवान् || १-९-१४
14. teSaam tu = their, but; vachanam = words; shrutvaa = having listening; raajaa = the king; chintaam prapatsyate = thought, will obtain [becomes thoughtful]; kena upaayena = by which, means; shakyam = possible; saH viiryavaan = he, who has controlled his senses; iha aanetum = to here, be fetched.
"On listening them the king becomes thoughtful about the idea by which it is possible to bring that self-controlled sage to his place... [1-9-14]
ततो राजा विनिश्चित्य सह मंत्रिभिरात्मवान् |
पुरोहितममात्यांश्च प्रेषयिष्यति सत्कृतान् || १-९-१५
15. tataH = then; raajaa = the king; vinishchitya = decides; saha = along with; mantribhiH = ministers; aatmavaan = one with intelligence; purohitam = clergymen; amaatyaan cha = ministers, also; tataH = then; preSayiSyati = will send.
"Then that intellectual king decides along with ministers, to dispatch clergymen and ministers, honouring them well, and then sends them... [1-9-15]
ते तु राज्ञो वचः श्रुत्वा व्यथिता विनताननाः |
न गच्छेम ऋषेर्भीता अनुनेष्यन्ति तं नृपम् || १-९-१६
16. te tu = they, but; raajnaH vachaH = king's, words; shrutvaa = on hearing; vyathitaaH = awestruck; vinataananaaH = lowering faces; na gacChema = [we] can not go; R^iSeH bhiitaaH = afraid of that sage; anuneShyanti = plead for mercy; tam nripam = of that, king.
"They on hearing king's words are awestruck and lowering their faces they will say, 'we can not go there as we are afraid of sage Vibhandaka, father of Rishyasringa...' [1-9-16]
वक्ष्यन्ति चिंतयित्वा ते तस्योपायांश्च तत्क्षमान् |
आनेष्यामो वयं विप्रं न च दोषो भविष्यति || १-९-१७
17. chintayitaa te vakSyanti = after thinking over, they [as a second thought,] will say; tat kShamaan upaayaan tasya = that, plan, to bring the sage; vayam vipram aaneShyaamaH = we will fetch that Brahman, Rishyasringa,; na cha doShaH bhaviShyati = no, also, stigma will occur.
"After thinking over they will say as a second thought, and having found a solution with a plan to bring that sage, 'we will fetch that Brahman and also by that no stigma will occur...' [1-9-18]
एवमङ्गाधिपेनैव गणिकाभिर्ऋषेः सुतः |
आनीतोऽवर्षयद्देवः शान्ता चास्मै प्रदीयते || १-९-१८
18. evam angaadhipena eva = thus, Anga country's king [Romapaada] thus; gaNikaabhiH = by courtesans; R^iSeH sutaH = Sage's, son [Rishyasringa]; aaniitaH = [sage will be] brought; [then] devaH avarSayat = god[Rain-god] will shower rains; shaantaa pradiiyate cha = Shanta will be given to him, also.
"Thus by the king of Anga kingdom and by his courtesans the son of sage Rishyasringa will be brought and the presiding deity for rains will shower rains, and Shanta will also be given in marriage to that sage...' [1-9-18]
ऋष्यशृङ्गस्तु जामाता पुत्रांस्तव विधास्यति |
सनत्कुमारकथितमेतावद्व्याहृतं मया || १-९-१९
19. RiShyasringaH tu jaamaataa = Rishyasringa, son-in-law(of Romapaada); putraan tava vidhaasyati = bless with sons to you; etaavat vyaahR^itam mayaa = all this, retold, by me; sanatkumaarakathitam = as said by Sanatkumaara.
"Sage Rishyasringa, son-in-law of Romapaada, King of Anga ad as well as to you, if invited to our kingdom he will bless you to beget sons, oh! King... so said Sage Sanatkumaara to other sages and all this is retold by me." [Thus the charioteer and the Minister Sumantra completed his narration in confidence to King Dasharatha.] [1-9-19]
Sage Rishyasringa is also a son-in-law to King Dasharatha. Princess Shanta, in a distant relationship is a daughter to King Dasharatha in relation and the adopted daughter of Romapaada, the King of Anga. Thus Sumantra's saying son-in-law also means Dasharatha's son-in-law, besides Romapada's.
अथ हृष्टो दशरथः सुमंत्रं प्रत्यभाषत |
यथर्ऋष्यशृङ्गस्त्वानीतो विस्तरेण तथोच्यताम् || १-९-२०
20. atha hR^iSTaH dasharathaH = then, delighted, Dasharatha; sumantram prati abhaaSata = to Sumantra, in turn, spoke; yathaa R^iSyashR^i~NgaH aaniitaH = how, Rishyasringa, brought [to Anga Kingdom]; vistareNa tathaa ucyataam = shall be said elaborately.
Then King Dasharatha is delighted and in turn spoke to Sumantra "By what idea Rishyasringa is brought to Anga kingdom, that shall be said elaborately..." [1-9-20]
इति वल्मीकिरामायणे आदिकाव्ये बालकाण्डे नवमः सर्गः
© 1999, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised: Mar, '04]