Book IV : Kishkindha Kanda - The Empire of Holy Monkeys

Chapter [Sarga] 1
Verses converted to UTF-8, Nov 09


Rama in his pursuit to regain Seetha reaches Pampa Lake along with Lakshmana. Rama visualises Pampa Lake as a heavenly abode and narrates to Lakshmana the suffering he is undergoing due to the departure of Seetha, i.e., the departure of innate soul from the Supreme. Seetha is the alter ego of Rama, either in heaven or on earth. In heavens she is Goddess Lakshmi and she incarnates herself as Seetha on earth. In the first chapter of Kishkindha Kanda the elaborate description of Pampa Lake and its surroundings is to be taken as a two-fold narration, one pertaining to Divinity, the other to Rama, the human. The area of Pampa Lake metaphors with heavens, and its trees and birds with divine souls, and who incidentally are teachers too. The fragrant breeze metaphors with god's gift, flowers as pure knowers and knowledge, and the tranquil water as clear heart and so on. Rama as hero of the epic is in search of Seetha. Rama as god incarnate is also in search of true devotees who are entrapped in the bodies of living beings. The true devotees are the trees, birds, flowers, waters and other naturals except the humans who cherish the earthly comforts. Thus Rama's sorrowing over Seetha and Bharata is in similitude with the god's sorrowing for the true devotees, who needs salvation from the birth and death cycle. Hence the god incarnate Rama is in search of true devotee like Seetha, who is now in a distant place and needs some education about her release from the embodiment in Lanka. Later Rama finds Hanuma, the teacher, who will be deputed, to Seetha to enlighten her about her release. In the last two chapters of Aranya Kanda there will be some 61 verses detailing about Pampa Lake and Rama's love for Seetha. But in Gorakhpur and Eastern recessions there are 130 verses in this first canto of Kishkindha and some 20 verses in the fag end chapter of Aranya canto. In these many verses Rama expresses his deep-rooted emotion for Seetha, which the ancient commentators have interpreted to be the God's deep-seated love and anguish for the created souls. The comparison is, Rama to Vishnu, Seetha to the created soul, now captivated in the embodiment called Lanka, and Lakshmana as the true devout. God needs a messenger or a Messiah or as per Hindu tradition the Guru, the teacher. That is what Hanuma. Rama as a god incarnate is actually in search of a true teacher, for which the surroundings of Pampa Lake are exemplified as good surroundings for finding such a true teacher. As far as possible, the commentaries of ancients are given in comment section of those verses. At the fag end of this chapter, the mighty monkey hero Sugreeva, moving on the Rishyamuka Mountain sees Rama and Lakshmana entering into his territory, flees into deep forests, fearing them to be enemies.

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स ताम् पुष्करिणीम् गत्वा पद्म उत्पल झषाकुलाम् |
रामः सौमित्रि सहितो विललाप अकुलेन्द्रियः || ४-१-१

1. 1. saH = such as he is, [viz. he who took birth in Ayodhya, relegated from kingdom, exiled to forets, lost his wife, and who is searching for her in wilderness, such Rama]; taam puShkariNiim gatvaa = that, lotus lake [Pampa,] arriving at; padma utpala jhaSha aakulaam = lotuses, Costuses, fishes, full with; raamaH saumitri sahitaH = Rama, Sumitra's son,[Lakshmana,] along with; vilalaapa = lamented; akulendriyaH = disturbed, senses [emotions disturbed.]

Rama, on arriving at that Lake of Lotuses called Pampa along with Lakshmana, which is full with lotuses, costuses, and fishes, lamented as his emotions are disturbed, on seeing the beauty of the Lake comparable with Seetha's face. [4-1-1]

In this very first verse itself the auspicious nature of the land of Kishkindha is implanted. Rama as hero of this epic identifies his heroine Seetha's face with the tranquil sheet of lake's water, her eyes with the lotuses, and her quick glances with the quick swims of the fishes in the lake. Rama as god incarnate observes the tranquil sheet of water as the quiescence of his creation. The red lotuses are meditatively standing, as the devotees ready to be taken away to the feet of their god. The swimming fishes are seen as the souls captivated in human bodies, rushing hither and thither for salvation, which is hindered by the banks of life [here the banks of the lake.] Thus on certain occasions we chance to meet with the different points of view of Rama, one as hero and the other as god incarnate, derived from the metaphors or similes by the ancient commentators.

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तत्र दृष्ट्वैवा ताम् हर्षात् इन्द्रियाणि चकम्पिरे |
स कामवशम् आपन्नः सौमित्रिम् इदम् अब्रवीत् || ४-१-२

2. tatra dR^iShTva eva taam = there, on seeing, at it [that lake]; harShaat indriyaaNi chakampire = by gladness, senses, quivered; saH kaamavasham aapannaH = he, by passion, overcame, engrossed; saumitrim idam abraviit = to Lakshmana, this way, spoke.

There, on seeing that Lake of Lotuses, thrilled are his senses with gladness, and he engrossed and overcame by passion spoke this way to Lakshmana. [4-1-2]

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सौमित्रे शोभते पम्पा वैदूर्य विमल उदका |
फुल्ल पद्म उत्पलवती शोभिता विविधैः द्रुमैः || ४-१-३

3. Soumitri! vaiduurya vimala udakaa = cat's-eye-gem [lapis lazuli] like, clear, with water; phulla padma utpala vatii = she who has bloomed lotuses [Lythrum fructicosum,] costuses [Saussurea hypoleuca]; vividhaiH drumaiH shobhitaa = with many, trees, beaming forth; shobhate pampaa = magnificent is, Pampa Lake.

"Oh! Soumitri, magnificent is Pampa Lake with its cat's-eye-gem like waters, and she with her fully bloomed lotuses and costuses is beaming forth, along with many trees around her. [3-1-3]

The clear water is devout-soul and the bloomed lotuses are the tranquil faces of the devotees. The water is like cat's eye gem. Cat's eye or Lapis Lazuli is ' a beautiful stone consisting of calcite and other minerals coloured ultramarine...' and a precious stone of Sri Lanka and the Malabar Coast...' thus say Chambers and Oxford dictionaries, and it is Indian, that too South Indian specific. It is one of the nine gems, in nava-ratna combination.

Secondly the usage of vaiduurya vimala udaka is an often-repeated expression, which may not be construed only that the waters are like cats-eye or Lapis Lazule, the precious gem in nava ratna/ nine-gem combination. In fine composition it is smaraNa alankaara , a metaphorical memorabilia. If it were said that the water is like vaiduurya or cat's-eye or Lapis, it reminds us of all other eight gems including a diamond. As such the waters are crystalline and pellucid in their look like priceless gems, for water is the invaluable gem-like gift of nature and flowing waters are the priceless possessions for livelihood as well.

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सौमित्रे पश्य पम्पायाः काननम् शुभ दर्शनम् |
यत्र राजन्ति शैला वा द्रुमाः स शिखरा इव || ४-१-४

4. Soumitri! pasya pampaayaaH kaananam = see, Pampa's, forest; shubha darshanam = auspicious one, in appearance; yatra raajanti shailaa = where, lustre, mountains; vaa = or; drumaa = trees; sa shikharaa = with peaks; iva = like.

"Oh! Soumitri, see the forest of Pampa, the auspicious one in its appearance... where the mountains or trees lustre with their mountainous peaks... [4-1-4]

The mountainous trees are teachers, and their mountainous branches are the taught, that depend on their teachers, and both of they depending upon the Pampa Lake, the divine tranquil water... and everything depends on waters, as per Vedic saying: aapovaa idagam sarvam... waters are everything...

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माम् तु शोकाभि सन्तप्तम् आधयः पीडयन्ति वै ||
भरतस्य च दुःखेन वैदेह्या हरणेन च || ४-१-५

5. bharatasya duHkhena = of Bharata, by anguish of; vaidehyaa haraNena cha = Vaidehi's [Seetha's,] abduction, also; shoka abhisantaptam = by anguish, well seethed; maam tu = me, but; aaadhayaH = sensibilities distress'; piiDayanti vai = distressing, indeed.

"But I, who am well seethed by the anguish of Bharata, and even by the abduction of Seetha, am indeed distressed by my sensibilities and their distresses... [4-1-5]

In some other version like Eastern version the word Maadhava i.e., Love God Manmadha used for aadhayaH because the alankaara or the aesthetics demand the description of vasantha requires Manmadha. Then the compound is read as santaptam maadhavaH piidayanniva comes there, meaning that 'the Vasanta, the spring season, or the personified Manmadha, the Love God, is distressing me, besides the problems of anguished Bharata and abduction of Seetha.' It is said that Rama remembers Bharata too, along with Seetha at this juncture, because as a god incarnate He remembers the sufferance of these innate souls dedicated to Him. Bharata is another kainkarya /dedicatee of Rama, the divine, like Lakshmana.

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शोकार्तस्य अपि मे पम्पा शोभते चित्र कानना |
व्यवकीर्णा बहु विधैः पुष्पैः शीतोदका शिवा || ४-१-६

6. chitra kaananaa = with delightful, forests; bahu vidhaiH puSpaiH vyavakiirNaa = many, diverse, flowers, overspreading; shiita udakaa = cool, waters; shoka aatrasya api = by anguish, disquieted, even though; me to me; shivaa pampa = auspicious, Pampa Lake; shobhate = shining forth [appearing pleasantly.]

"This auspicious Pampa is pleasant to me with its delightful forests overspread with many diverse flowers, cool waters, though I am disquieted... [4-1-6]

In grief everything is disquieting, duHkhite manasi sarvam asahyam... but these pleasant floral environment of Pampa is admirable to Rama, because nature is divine.

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नलिनैः अपि संछन्ना हि अत्यर्थ शुभ दर्शना |
सर्प व्याल अनुचरिता मृग द्विज समाकुला || ४-१-७

7. nalinaH api samChannaa = by lotuses, even, enwreathed; atyartha shubha darshanaa = remarkably, sacred, its aspect; sarpa vyaala anucharitaa = snakes, elephants, rambling; mR^iga dvija samaakulaa = deer, birds, bustling with.

"Even enwreathed with lotuses this is remarkably sacred in its aspect... rambling snakes and elephants and restless are the deer and birds flocks, as well... [4-1-7]

Even though serpents etc., are there, the lake with its lotuses is pleasant. This suggests that if a wise-one contains a vice, he is not deplorable... teSaam tejo visheSeNa pratyavaayo na vidyate...smriti scriptures.

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अधिकम् प्रविभाति एतत् नील पीतम् तु शाद्वलम् |
द्रुमाणाम् विविधैः पुष्पैः परिस्तोमैः इव अर्पितम् || ४-१-८

8. adhikam pra vibhaati = much, very, shining; etat niila piitam tu = all this, bluish, yellowish, also; shaadvalam = grassland; drumaaNaam vividhaiH puSpaiH = of trees, variety of, with flowers; paristomaiH iva arpitam = blanket, like, covering.

"All this is shining very much with bluish, yellowish grassland with a variety of trees... and with flowers covering it like flowery bed-sheet with variegated colours... [4-1-8]

The green pasturelands have become colourful pastures with variegated flower-fall, means that the a mortal soul on receiving many a teaching from many teachers, where the teachers are trees and flowers are teachings, that mortal is becoming immortal, and becomes an abode to the Supreme soul.

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पुष्प भार समृद्धानि शिखराणि समन्ततः |
लताभिः पुष्पित अग्राभिः उपगूढानि सर्वतः || ४-१-९

9. puSpa bhaara samR^iiddhaani = flower's, onus, on the rise; shikharaaNi samantataH = peaks [of trees,] everywhere; lataabhiH puSpita agraabhiH = by climbers, flowered, apices; upa guuDhaani sarvataH = well, embracing, wholly.

"Everywhere the treetops are fully flowered and the onus of those flowers is on the rise, though they are wholly embraced by climbers and their apices. [4-1-9]

A householder, though embraced by many flowery desires, will stand out, with his own flowers of wisdom, should he be true devotee.

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सुख अनिलोऽयम् सौमित्रे कालः प्रचुर मन्मथः |
गन्धवान् सुरभिर् मासो जात पुष्प फल द्रुमः || ४-१-१०

10. sukha anilaH ayam saumitre = pleasing, breeze, this one, Soumitri; kaalaH prachura manmadhaH = in this time of [season,] prevails, Manmadha, the Love God; gandhavaan = prideful [is this month]; surabhiH = fragrance; maasaH = this month; jaata pushpa phala drumaH = born [anew,] flowers, fruits, trees.

"Pleasing is this breeze, oh! Soumitri, and Manmadha, the Love God, prevails at this time, and prideful is this month with its fragrance, flowers, fruits and trees... all anew... [4-1-10]

The appreciation of nature is said to be of divine nature, for the Divine creates the nature that itself is of Divine nature. The high crowned trees are the sessile teachers and the flowers and birds are mobile students, who always surround the teachers. Rama in search of some good teacher to convey his message to the captive Seetha finds some other great teachers of nature, but whom he cannot utilise for his purpose because they are sessile. He however praises them while remembering Seetha. The touch of Cupid is for the Rama, the Hero, and the touch of anguish in search of a good teacher is for the god incarnate.

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पश्य रूपाणि सौमित्रे वनानाम् पुष्प शालिनाम् |
सृजताम् पुष्प वर्षाणि वर्षम् तोयमुचाम् इव || ४-१-११

11. pashya ruupaaNi = see, the figuration; Soumitri; vanaanaam puShpa shaalinaam = of the forests, flowers, enriched ones; sR^ijataam puShpa varShaaNi = outpouring, flower, rains; varSam toya muchaam iva = rain, from watery, rain-clouds, like.

"See this figuration of these forests enriched with these flowers, Soumitri! Outpouring is the flower rain, like the rain from rain-clouds... [4-1-11]

Teachers rain flowers of wisdom like rain from clouds without any seeking.

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प्रस्तरेषु च रम्येषु विविधाः कानन द्रुमाः |
वायु वेग प्रचलिताः पुष्पैः अवकिरन्ति गाम् || ४-१-१२

12. prastareShu cha ramyeShu = on slopes [of mountains,] also, appeasing ones; vividhaaH kaanana drumaaH = many a, forest, trees; vaayu vega pra chalitaaH = by air's, speed, well, swung; puShpaiH avakiranti gaam = flowers, showering, onto ground.

"Also on those appeasing terraces of mountains there are many forest trees... speed of winds are swinging them to shower flowers onto ground... [4-1-12]

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पतितैः पतमानैः च पादपस्थैः च मारुतः |
कुसुमैः पश्य सौमित्रे क्रीडतीव समन्ततः || ४-१-१३

13. patitaiH = fallen; patamaanaiH = about to fall; paadapasthaiH cha = still on the trees, also; kusumaiH = with flowers; pasya Soumitre = see, Soumitri; maarutaH = wind; kriiDati iva samantataH = is playing, as though, everywhere.

"These are the flowers already fallen, about to fall, or still on the trees, but everywhere the air is playing with these flowers, see that Lakshmana... [4-1-13]

The word patitaH also synonyms with morally fallen. The three states of flowers viz., fallen, about to fall and yet to fall are not just for flowers but also for those who are in the same state morally. With all of them the god plays in his kriida, liila . Presently god's own attribute, namely the Air is playing with them, since air is the suutra , string, the thread of whole creation.

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विक्षिपन् विविधाः शाखा नगानाम् कुसुमोत्कटाः |
मारुतः चलित स्थानैः षट्पदैः अनुगीयते || ४-१-१४

14. nagaanaam kusumoutkaTaaH = of trees, flowers, full of; vividhaiH shaakhaa = numerous, branches; maarutaH = wind; vikshipan = when rapidly moved; chalithaH sthaanaiH = moved, places [displaced]; SaT padaiH anugiiyate = by honeybees [six-footed bees,] in accompaniment, singing.

"The honeybees are displaced when the wind rapidly moved numerous branches of trees with full of flowers, and though displaced those bees are singing as though in accompaniment to the singing breeze... [4-1-14]

The singing of honeybees or of the air amounts to the chanting of Sama Veda hymns at the sight of Absolute, i.e., Rama who now appeared in this environ.

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मत्त कोकिल सन्नादैः नर्तयन् इव पादपान् |
शैल कन्दर निष्क्रान्तः प्रगीत इव च अनिलः || ४-१-१५

15. shaila kandara nishkraantaH = from mountain, caves, emerging out; anila = breeze; matta kokila sannaadaiH = by lusty, black cuckoos, high callings of; paadapaan nartayan iva = trees, make them to dance, as though; pragiita iva cha = singing, as thoguh [itself singing,] also, the breeze is.

"Breeze coming out from those mountain caves along with the high callings of lusty black cuckoos are making the trees to dance, and the air itself is as though singing as an accompaniment to that dancing... [4-1-15]

The kokila is not exactly a cuckoo, for cuckoo gives out a two note call whereas the kokila gives out a single lengthy call with up and down of its tone, and also replies its imitative cooing of the humans. However it belongs to the same species of cuckoo. Here the 'air itself is singing' has the similitude with singing of Sama Veda hymns, which here is coming out of mountain caves, where the caves themselves are the abode of the hermits and sages, who sing Sama hymns. Later in the canto the monkey heroes also dwell in caves, and are equated with the pre-eminent teaches who always sing in the praise of God, which will be as good as singing the Vedic Hymns. Now the air emerging from the caverns of yonder firmaments is singing Sama Veda applauding Rama, the Divine.

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तेन विक्षिपता अत्यर्थम् पवनेन समन्ततः |
अमी संसक्त शाखाग्रा ग्रथिता इव पादपाः || ४-१-१६

16. tena vi kshipataa atyartham = by him [air,] well moved, very much; pavanena samantataH = by air, all over; amii samsakta shaaka agraa = these, mingling, branch, spires; gradhitaa iva paadapaaH = entwined, like, trees.

"Entwined are the spires of trees when muchly moved by the air, thus the trees themselves seem to be entwined one with the other... [4-1-16]

Entwined are the devotees in the devotion of their common Supreme.

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स एव सुख संस्पर्शो वाति चन्दन शीतलः |
गन्धम् अभ्यवहन् पुण्यम् श्रम अपनयो अनिलः || ४-१-१७

17. sa eva sukha samsparshaH = he [the breeze] thus, happy, for touch; vaati chandana shiitala = breezing, sandalwood like, coolant; gandham abhyavahan = fragrance, carrying; puNyam = merited; shrama apanayanaH anilaH = fatigue, removing, breeze.

"He, this breeze is thus a happy one for touch, carrying a coolant and the fragrance like that of the sandalwood, and this breezing is a merited one and a fatigue remover... [4-1-17]

The fragrance gandha always synonyms with puNya merit. A flower emits fragrance without anybody's rrequest and it is its merit. The flowers of grass are forbidden for worship, for they have no scent. And God is said to be sarva gandhaH sarva rasaH 'He is all the fragrance, He is all the essence...' The appealing sounds of the birds are taken as the recitation of Sama Veda, the top of the trees is parama pada , the heavens, and the flowers are the knowledge-full seers, and the birds are the innate souls captivated in living beings. The flower is an essential item in the worship of any religion and in Maha Naarayana Upanishad we are told it to be carrier of moral merit unto god, like its fragrance that can be felt at a distance without any visible medium. According to; Maha Narayanopanishad Section Eleven, Hymn 1: yathaa vR^ikShasya sampuShpitasya duuraat gandhovaatievam karmaNo duuraadgandho vaati -- maha Narayanopanishad ||

 Just in the same manner as the fragrance of a tree in full blossom is wafted by the wind from a distant place, the fragrance of meritorious deeds-- the good name that accrues from them -- spreads to a great distance [as far as heaven.]

Thus the corollary of the teacher and the taught is also applicable here. The flowers are the teachers and their knowledge is fragrance, where the taught are the birds whose cooing is the chanting of Sama Veda. The birds, as the captivated souls, are seeking salvation in their chanting around the teachers i.e., flowers to communicate the same to god, with their fragrant knowledge. This enthrals the god, now Rama.

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अमी पवन विक्षिप्ता विनन्दन्ती इव पादपाः |षट्पदैः अनुकूजद्भिः वनेषु मधु गन्धिषु || ४-१-१८

18. amii paadapaaH = these, the trees; pavana viksiptaa = by air, vacillated; vi nandantii iva = well, enjoying, like; SaTpadaiH anu kuujadbhiH = by honeybees, in accompaniment, humming; vaneSu madhu gandhiSu = in forest, with honey's, aroma.

"Air is vacillating these trees in this honey scented forest... and the trees appear to be enjoying their fluttering dance and seem to be swinging their treetops to appreciate the singing of honeybees that are humming in accompaniment to this dance... [4-1-18]

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गिरि प्रस्थेषु रम्येषु पुष्पवद्भिः मनोरमैः |
संसक्त शिखरा शैला विराजन्ति महाद्रुमैः || ४-१-१९

19. giri prastheSu ramyeSu = on mountain's, planes, beautiful ones; puSpavadbhiH manoramaiH = with flowered [trees,] pleasant ones; samsakta shikharaaH = entwined, high pinnacles; shailaaH = mountains; vi raajante mahaa drumaiH = indeed, liven up, with great, trees.

"On mountain-planes that are beautiful with fully flowered and pleasant tress that entwine the mountain peaks with their high treetops, and thus these mountains indeed liven up with these great trees...[4-1-19]

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पुष्प संछन्न शिखरा मारुतः उत्क्षेप चंचला |
अमी मधुकरोत्तंसाः प्रगीत इव पादपाः || ४-१-२०

20. puSpa samChanna shikharaa = by flowers, covered, apices; maarutaH utksepha chanchalaa = by wind, moved, swinging; amii madhukara uttamsaaH = these, with honeybees, coronet like; pra giita iva paadapaaH = well, singing and dancing, as though, the trees.

"Air is moving the treetops fully covered with flowers to swinging and the coronet like honeybees have to swing around those treetops, thus these trees themselves appear to be dancing to be dancing and singing... [4-1-20]

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सुपुष्पितांस्तु पश्य एतान् कर्णिकारान् समन्ततः |
हाटक प्रति संच्छन्नान् नरान् पीतांबरान् इव || ४-१-२१

21. su puSipataam tu = fully, flowered, also; pashya etaan karNikaaraan samantataH = see, these, Karnikaara plants [Pentapetes acerifolia,] all over; haaTakaprati sam cChannaan = by golden ornaments, well covered with [wearing]; naraan iva = men like; piita ambaran iva = yellow, cloth, like.

"Fully flowered are these Karnikaara plants all over with golden colour flowers at top and yellow coloured stems, and they look like men wearing golden ornaments on their upper body, while their loin cloth is yellow... [4-1-21]

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अयम् वसन्तः सौमित्रे नाना विहग नादितः |
सीतया विप्रहीणस्य शोक सन्दीपनो मम || ४-१-२२

22. ayam vasantaH = this, spring; Soumitri; naanaa vihaga naaditaH = many, birds, sounded by; siithaayaa viprahiiNasya = of Seetha, disunited; shoka sandiipanaH mama = grief, enkindled, in me.

"This spring with the soundings of many birds, oh! Soumitri, is enkindling grief in me, for Seetha is disunited...[4-1-22]

All the innate souls are required to be in unison with the Supreme Soul, and they are not to depart for the worldly illusions. Seetha's illusion to possess the Golden Deer chanced for her abduction, and thus disunited from Rama

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माम् हि शोक समाक्रान्तम् संतापयति मन्मथः |
हृष्टम् प्रवदमानश्च समाह्वयति कोकिलः || ४-१-२३

23. shoka sam aakraantam = by grief, already pervaded; maam = me; manmadha santaapayati = Love God, is sweltering; hR^iSTam = happily; pra vadamaanaH = well, saying [calling]; kokilaH black cuckoo; samaahvayati = me, welcoming [rather derisively.]

"I, who am already pervaded by grief, am now well sweltered by the Love God, and this cuckoo that has happy calls is rather calling me down... [4-1-23]

The hero hears the call of cuckoo as heroine's call. The God is listening to the same from the beings of nature, as a call for salvation. Rama, who has not heard any call of Seetha so far, which he will hear at the end of this canto, is in wait for such a call.

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एष दाअत्यूहको हृष्टो रम्ये माम् वन निर्झरे |
प्रणदन् मन्मथाविष्टम् शोचयिष्यति लक्ष्मण || ४-१-२४

24. Lakshmana; ramye = exquisite; vana nirjhare = in forest, brooks; hR^iSTaH praNadan = happily, calling; eSa daatyuuhakaH = this, gallinule bird; maam = me; manmadhaH aavishtam = by Love God, made me awestricken; shochaiSyati = making me awesome.

"This gallinule bird happily calling in the forest brooks is making me awesome with its calls, as the Love-god has already made me awestricken... [4-1-24]

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श्रुत्वा एतस्य पुरा शब्दम् आश्रमस्था मम प्रिया |
माम् आहूय प्रमुदिता परमम् प्रत्यनन्दत || ४-१-२५

25. puraa = earlier; aashramasthaa = when in the hermitage; mama priyaa = my, dear one Seetha; etasya shabdam shrutva = this bird's, calling, on hearing; pra muditaa = well, gladdened; maam aahuuya = me, on calling; paramam = highly; pratyanandata = was highly cheerful.

"Earlier when we were in hermitage, on hearing this bird's call, dear Seetha used to call me to listen, and she herself was highly cheerful at this bird's calls... [4-1-25]

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एवम् विचित्राः पतगा नाना राव विराविणः |
वृक्ष गुल्म लताः पश्य संपतन्ति समन्ततः|| ४-१-२६

26. evam vichitraaH patagaa = that kind of, very amusing, birds; naanaa raava viraaviNaH = very, many, sounds, emitting; vR^iksha gulama lataaH = on trees, bushes, creepers; pashya = see; sam patanti samantataH = well, falling [flitting,] all over.

"Very many amusing birds of that kind are flitting all over on trees, bushes, and creepers emitting very many sounds... see them, Lakshmana... [4-1-26]

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विमिश्रा विहगाः पुंभिः आत्म व्यूह अभिनन्दिताः |
भृङ्गराज प्रमुदिताः सौमित्रे मधुर स्वराः || ४-१-२७

27. vimishraa vihagaaH = well mingled, female birds; pumbhiH = with male ones; aatmavyuuha abhinanditaaH = their own flock, well admired; bhR^ingaraaja pramuditaaH = king-bees, well, gladdened; Soumitri; madhura swaraaH = pleasing, tunes [singing.]

"Well mingled are these female birds with their male ones, for which they are well admired by their own flock, oh! Soumitri, and such birds are calling gladsomely together with the pleasing humming of king-bees... [4-1-27]

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अस्याः कूले प्रमुदिताः सन्घशः शकुनास्त्विह |
दात्यूहरति विक्रन्दैः पुंस्कोकिल रुतैः अपि | ४-१-२८
स्वनन्ति पादपाः च इमे माम् अनङ्ग प्रदीपकाः |

28, 29a. iha = here; asyaaH kuule = at its, shore [of Pampa Lake]; sanghashaH = in groups; shakunaaH pramuditaaH = birds, are rejoicing; ime = these; paadapaaH ca = trees, also; daatyuuha rata vikrandaiH = with gallinule bird's, mating, sounds; pumskokila rutaiH api = male, black cuckoo's, callings, even; maam = in me; ana~Nga pradiipakaaH = love, while inspiring; svananti = calling [inciting.]

"At the shore of this Lake Pampa rejoicing are these birds in groups, and these trees loaded with the mating sounds of gallinule birds, and even loaded the callings of the male black cuckoos, are while inciting me they are inspiring love in me... [4-1-28, 29a]

Prof. R. D. Ranade, the eminent professor of Indian Philosophies said that "Translations are always bound to be uncouth; they are like a heavy cart-load which moves slowly along..." So also Ramayana, whose text itself is a cartload, and the translations become many more cartloads. Much can be said in Kishkindha Kanda, for it comprises of many a derivative, which cannot be compressed and put together. The hero-heroine and the god incarnate aspects, together with some Indian philosophies included, are sufficient to become some more cartloads. The Hindu Love-god, Manmadha, unlike his European counterpart Cupid, has no body. At one time, Shiva burned Him down physically, for arousing lasciviousness in Shiva Himself. But Shiva makes the Love-god Manmadha to thrive without a physical body, at the request of Love God's wife Rati. Hence Love God is also called an anga = without, body. The bodiless nature and only the emotive responses in love are symbolical with the formless activity of romancing aroused by ananga or Manmadha, i.e., Love God. Alternately the word Manmadha not necessarily be taken as a noun, denoting the Love God alone. As a phrasal verb it denotes, mind, churning. mann; manas; madhaH - mannamsi mathate iti manmathaH... to churn. There is a platform called manas , below the subconscious level, and above sensory organs, which receives all the input from the sensory organs, which the manas separates, categorises, analyses and so on, and then sends to databank at subconscious level. Amara Kosha defines it as cittantu ceto hR^idayam svaantam hR^in maanasam manaH || dhii vargaand the separation is chittam, chetaH, hridayam, svaantam, hrit, maanasam, manH and this is not the composite mind, but a faculty of reason, what we generally call, a heart, a mind, a thought etc. Hence the lamentation of Rama is more churned out of his manas for Seetha, not just for amorousness, but for real love. And love, as per good old saying, is togetherness. Having lost that togetherness, Rama is pouring out his heart churned agony. Yet again, Rama the god indulges in those that are indulged in Him, and here his thoughts are constantly indulged in Seetha, his alter ego in heavens and on earth. In the Vaishnava mythologies, Vishnu incarnating on earth always looses his consort, Goddess Lakshmi and roams over to find Her. It is the same situation in narasimha incarnation. Goddess Lakshmi is a treasure house that can be abducted by the greedy, after which Her consort Vishnu searches and retrieves Her, for no one on earth can amass heavenly wealth. In Lakshmi tantra, the Vaishnava aagama text Lakshmi states that: aham naaraayanii naama saa sattaa vaiShNavii paraa " I am indeed Naaraayanee [i.e. Lakshmi] the supreme essence of Vishnu..." [Lakshmi Tantra 3.1.] Hence, Seetha may not be taken as yet another princess from this viewpoint.

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अशोक स्तबक अङ्गारः षट्पद स्वन निस्वनः || ४-१-२९
माम् हि पल्लव ताम्रार्चिः वसन्ताग्निः प्रधक्ष्यति |

29b, 30a. vasanta agniH = spring season's, fire; ashoka stabaka angaaraH = Hellebore trees', with clusters of red flower blossoms, that are like fireballs; SaTpada svana nisvanaH = with honeybees, humming, rustles [like campfire sounds]; pallava taamra archiH = leaflets, coppery red coloured, fire-like; maam hi pradhakshyati = me, indeed, will burn.

"The fire called spring season will burn me down with its fiery paraphernalia like the clusters of red flowers of hellebore that are akin to fireballs, the humming of honeybees that is alike the rustle of campfires, and the coppery red colour of tender leaves just sprouted that is identical to burning fire... [4-1-29b, 30a]

Vasanta or spring is a friendly season, and Kishkindha is a friendly place, [and Rama gets more friends in this place later,] but Rama's lifetime friend and supreme essence is missing. For god, this burning is the sensation or perception of energy as warmth shown by the devout nature, and its blessed souls. Shaiva/Shaakta traditions emphasises the power and majesty of the God, whereas the Vaishnava theory demands a heart pouring devotion to achieve the God's saving grace anugraha . Hence the lamentation of Rama as god is for the departure of his Shakti, i.e., Goddess Lakshmi, visualising all the nature and its component devotees he created, such as, trees, peacocks, birds, flowers, waters, mountains etc. All of this nature and its components are maddening Him for love from that Shakti.

This point of view requires some understanding of Vaishnava canons and some paancharaatra aagama expositions. The readers may find them in a great essay of Prof. Samjukta Gupta on Pancharatra, in a 'worm's eye view', [for she calls it that way,] in a book called Mantra . It is a collection of essays on the Hindu hymns by eminent Indologists like Frits Staal, Ellison Banks Findly et al, published by the State University of New York Press, State University Plaza, Albany, N.Y., 12246. These are published under their SUNY Series in Religious Studies, and this one is under the editorship of Harvey P. Alper.

For the hero in the epic, it is the want of warmth from the heroine. It may please be noted that if Rama addresses Lakshmana in the verse, it is a dialogue. Otherwise it is to be treated as monologue or soliloquy or aside or the character's heartfelt feelings, aimed for communicating to us, but not to Lakshmana alone. Not all the verses are spoken to Lakshmana. It is a kind of commixture of dramatics and narration. Here the lovelorn Rama views Ashoka trees as the arrow of the Love god, manmadha. The Love God has five arrows and they are:

aravindam ashokam ca cuutam ca nava mallikaa
niilotpalam ca pa~Ncai te pa~Nca baaNaa asya saayakaaH ||

1.aravinda= a lotus [nelumblum speciosum], 2. ashoka= a flower of hellebore origin, 3. chutam= mango flower, 4.nava mallika= new jasmine, 5.neela utpala= blue costus, are the five arrows of Manmadha.

prathamam aravindam urasi pashcaat ashokam adharayoH |
cuuta~N shire navamallikaa~N nayanayoH antataH niilotpala~N yat ki~ncit

(1) Aravindam flower-arrow  hits chest (2) Asoka flower-arrow lips (3) mango flower-arrow head (4) new jasmine flower-arrow eyes; (5) blue costuses hits anywhere.

Their functions are: -

unmaadanaH taapanaH ca shoShNa stambhanaH tadaa |
sammohanaH ca kaamasya pa~Nca baaNaaH prakiirtitaaH ||

The five states associated with each arrow are: -1.unmaada= maniacal state, tapana= fervent state, 3. shoshaNa= wasting away, 4. sthambhana= standstillness, 5. sammohana= stupifaction.

The Ashoka flower kills natual hunger, Jasmine desciccates, mango flower fades the colour, and lotusess causes criss-cross thinking, and the costuses incite the desire for suicide.

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न हि ताम् सूक्ष्मपक्ष्माक्षीम् सुकेशीम् मृदु भाषिणीम् || ४-१-३०
अपश्यतो मे सौउमित्रे जीवितेऽस्ति प्रयोजनम् |

30b, 31a. na hi taam = not, indeed, her; suukshma pakshma akshiim = slender, eyelids, having eyes; su keshiim = with decent, hairdo; mR^idu bhaaSiNiim = soft, spoken one; a pashyataH me = [if] not, seen, for me; oh, Soumitri; jiivite asti prayojanam = for life, [will there,] be, purposefulness.

"And if she with slender eyelids on her eyes, decent hairdo, and a soft spoken one, Oh! Soumitri, if she is unseen by me will there be any purposefulness of my life? [4-1-30b, 31a]

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अयम् हि रुचिरः तस्याः कालो रुचिर काननः || ४-१-३१
कोकिलाकुल सीमान्तः दयिताया मम अनघः |

31b, 32a. anagha = faultless one, [Lakshmana]; dayitaayaaH = dear one [to Seetha ]; tasyaaH = for her [Seetha]; ruchira kaananaH = she who has enchanting, woodlands [who liked the enchanting woodlands]; kokila akula siima antaH = with black cuckoos, bustling, boundaries, end of [far-flung]; ayam kaalaH = season; hi ruchiraH = indeed, appealing [to her.]

"My dear Seetha has an enchantment for these enchanting woodlands bustling with koels up to their horizons, and Lakshmana, similarly enchanting is this vernal season to her... [4-1-31b, 32a]

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मन्मध आयास संभूतो वसन्त गुण वर्धितः || ४-१-३२
अयम् माम् धक्ष्यति क्षिप्रम् शोकाग्निः न चिरादिव |

32b, 33a. ayam shoka agniH = this, grief, fire of; manmadhaH aayaasa sambhuutaH = of love, throes, born out of; vasanthaH guNa varthitaH = spring's, by attributes, furthered; maam kshipram = me, swiftly; na chiraat iva = not, lately [in no time]; dhakshyati = burns down.

"This fire of grief born out of the throes of love, and furthered by the attributes of spring season will swiftly burn me down in no time... [4-1-32]

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अपश्यत ताम् वनिताम् पश्यतो रुचिर द्रुमान् || ४-१-३३
मम अयम् आत्मप्रभवो भूयस्त्वम् उपयास्यति |

33b, 34a. taam vanitaatm = at that, lady; a pashyataH = one not, seeing; ruchira drumaan pashyataH = one who is seeing beautiful trees; mama ayam aatma prabhavaH = me, this, in soul, arising one [Love God, in me]; bhuuyastvam upayaasyati = intensity, he gains.

"As the one unable to see that lady but able to see beautiful trees the Love-god in me gains intensity... [4-1-33b, 34a]

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अदृश्यमाना वैदेही शोकम् वर्धयती इह मे || ४-१-३४
दृश्यमानो वसन्तः च स्वेद संसर्ग दूषकः |

34b, 35a. iha = now; a dR^ishyamaanaa = invisible one; vaidehii = Seetha; me shokam vardhayatii = my, agony, intensifying; sveda samsarga duushakaH = sweat's, touch of, remover;. dR^ishyamaanaH vasantha cha = visible one, spring-season, too [intensifying.]

"Now, that invisible Seetha is intensifying my agony, and this visible spring season, the remover of the touch of sweat too, is doing the same... [4-1-34b, 35a]

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माम् हि सा मृगशाबाक्षी चिन्ता शोक बलात्कृतम् || ४-१-३५
संतापयति सौमित्रे कृइरः चैत्र वनानिलः |

35b, 36a. Soumitri; saa mR^igashaaba akshii = she, that deer-eyed [Seetha]; chintaa shoka balaatkR^itam = in worry, by grief, overwhelmed one; maam hi = me, indeed; kR^iiraH chaitra vana anilaH = cruel, Chaitra month's [April-May], forest, breeze; santaapayati = burning, down.

"Overwhelmed with the grief of worry about that deer eyed Seetha, such as I am, I am burnt down by this cruel vernal breeze of forests...[4-1-35b, 36a]

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अमी मयूराः शोभन्ते प्रनृत्यन्तः ततः ततः || ४-१-३६
स्त्वैः पक्षैः पवन उद्धूतैः गवाक्षैः स्फाटिकैः इव |

36b, 37a. tataH tataH = there, and there; pranR^ityantaH = beautifully dancing; amii mayuuraaH = these, peacocks; pavana uddhuutaiH = by wind, shoved; sphaaTikaiH gavaakshaiH iva = crystal, windows, like; stvaiH pakshaiH their, wings, [plumage]; shobhante = are shining forth.

"And these peacocks that dance here and there are shining forth with crystal like windows on their plumage, when up-shoved by the wind...[4-1-36b, 37a]

The iridescent eye like spots on the back plumage of the peacock are said to be like a gavaaksha, go aksha  cow, eye. There used to be cow-eye like ventilators on the walls of ancient house to permit the air to circulate. Even a single feather of peacock is called the eye of the peacock for its glittering eye like spot. Here the air is permeating these eyes on the plumage of peacock and making those eyes look like crystals. Thus the spring breeze is permeating anywhere, including Rama, causing a want for the togetherness with Seetha. Unlike other birds, the peacocks do not mate often and in open. It has some ritual like dancing and secret in its conduct of mating.

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शिखिनीभिः परिवृतास्त एते मद मूर्छिताः || ४-१-३७
मन्मथ अभिपरीतस्य मम मन्मथ वर्धनाः |

37b, 38a. shikhiniibhiH parivR^itaasta = by peahens, surrounded; mada mUrChitaaH = in lust, convulsed; [te] ete = such of those peacocks; manmadha abhi pariitasya = love, muffled in; mama manamadha vardhanaaH = in me, lovesickness, intensifying.

"Those peacocks that are surorounded by their peahens and convulsed in love are intensifying longing in me, who am already muffled in love-longing... [4-1-37b, 38a]

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पश्य लक्ष्णम नृत्यन्तम् मयूरम् उपनृत्यति || ४-१-३८
शिखिनी मन्मथ आर्तैः एषा भर्तारम् गिरि सानुनि |

38b, 39a. pashya lakshmaNa = see, Lakshmana; giri saanushu = on mountain, terraces; manmadha aartaiH = love, longingly; eSaa shikhinii = this, peahen; nR^ityantam bhartaaram mayuuram upa nR^ityanti = dancing, after husband, peacock, at nearby dancing.

"See Lakshmana, on that mountain terrace this peahen longing for love is dancing at the nearby of her husband, that peacock... [4-1-38b, 39a]

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ताम् एव मनसा रामाम् मयुरोऽपि अनुधावति || ४-१-३९
वितत्य रुचिरौ पक्षौ रुतैः उपहसन् इव |

39b, 40a. mayuuraH api = peacock, even; vitatya ruchirau pakshau = spreading, beautiful, wings; rutaiH upahasan iva = screams, jokingly, as though; manasaa taam raamaam eva = longingly, after her, female one, only; upadhaavati = running after.

"Spreading his beautiful wings and screaming as though joking, even that peacock is longingly running after his female... [4-1-39b, 40a]

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मयूरस्य वने नूनम् रक्षसा न हृता प्रिया || ४-१-४०
तस्मात् नृत्यति रम्येषु वनेषु सह कान्तया |

40b, 41a. nuunam = definitely; mayuurasya priyaa = peacock's, dear; rakshasaa na hR^itaa = by demon, not, abducted; tasmaat = therefore; nR^ityati ramyeSu vaneSu = dancing, in beautiful, forest; saha kaantayaa = with, female one.

"Definitely no demon has abducted that peacock's ladylove, hence he is dancing with her in beautiful forests... [4-1-40b, 41a]

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मम त्वयम् विना वासः पुष्पमासे सुदुःसहः || ४-१-४१
पश्य लक्ष्मण संरागः तिर्यक् योनिगतेषु अपि |
यदेषा शिखिनी कामात् भर्तारम् अभिवर्तते || ४-१-४२

41b, 42. puSpa maase = in flowering, month; vinaa ayam = without, her; vaasaH = living; mama tu = for me; su duHsahaH = very, unbearable; pashya = see; Lakshmana; tiryak yoni gateSu api = animal, vaginal [originated,] came from, even; samraagaH = fondness; yadeSaa = like this; shikhinii kaamaat bhartaaram abhivartate = peahen, in passion, her husband, following.

"Living in this flowering month is unbearable for me... Lakshmana, see the fondness even in those originated in animals, thus that peahen in her passion is following her husband... [4-1-41b, 42]

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माम् अपि एवम् विशालाक्षी जानकी जात संभ्रमा |
मदनेन अभिवर्तेत यदि न अपहृता भवेत् || ४-१-४३

43. vishaalaakshii = broad-eyed; Jaanaki; yadi apahR^ita na bhavet = if, not, abducted, she is; madanena jaata sambhramaa = with love, born, ecstasy, haste; evam maam api = this way, me, even; abhivartate = would have followed.

"Had she, that broad eyed lady Seetha, not been abducted, she too would have followed me in this way with an ecstatic love... [4-1-43]

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पश्य लक्ष्मण पुष्पाणि निष्फलानि भवन्ति मे |
पुष्प भार समृद्धानाम् वनानाम् शिशिरात्यये || ४-१-४४

44. pashya = see; Lakshmana; shishiraaatyaye = in wintry season; puSpa bhaara samR^iddhaanaam = flowers, weighty, with abundance; vanaanaam = forests are; pushpaaNi niSphalaani bhavanti me = flowers, futile, are becoming, to me.

"See Lakshmana, while these forests are abundantly weighty with flowers in wintry season these flowers are becoming futile to me... [4-1-44]

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रुचिराणि अपि पुष्पाणि पादपानाम् अतिश्रिया |
निष्फलानि महीम् यान्ति समम् मधुकरोत्करैः || ४-१-४५

45. paadapaanaam = on the trees; pushpaaNi = flowers; atishriyaaH ruchiraaNi api = exceedinly, beautiful, though; niSphalaani mahiim yaanti = wastefully, onto earth, going; samam madhukara utkaraiH = well with, honeybee, swarms.

"Though these flowers on the trees are exceedingly beautiful they are falling onto the earth wastefully, along with the swarms of honeybees hovering over them... [4-1-45.]

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नदन्ति कावम् मुदिताः शकुना सङ्घशः कलम् |
आह्वयन्त इव अन्योन्यम् काम उन्मादकरा मम || ४-१-४६

46. muditaaH shakunaaH = blithesome, birds; mama kaama unmaada karaaH = to me, love, madness, causing; anyonyam aahvayanta iva = mutually, inviting, as though; sanghashaH kalam kaamam nadanti = in groups, melodiously, as they like, calling.

"These blithesome birds appear to be inviting each other in mutual consent, and they are melodious calling as they like, and this is causing love madness in me... [4-1-46]

The calling of the birds in-groups suggests the harmonious prayers by the devotees, which is maddening the god to accord salvation to so many of them.

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वसन्तो यदि तत्र अपि यत्र मे वसति प्रिया |
नूनम् परवशा सीता सा अपि शोच्यति अहम् यथा || ४-१-४७

47. vasantaH yadi tatra api [vartate] = spring season, if, is there, too [happens also to be there]; yatra me priyaa vasati = where, my, dear one, is living; nuunam paravashaa siita = definitely, in merriment, Seetha; saa api shochyati yathaa aham = she, also, saddens, like, me.

"Should this spring season be there too, where my dear one Seetha is living, she with her unrequited merriment will definitely be saddened like me... [4-1-47]

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नूनम् न तु वसन्तः तम् देशम् स्पृशति यत्र सा |
कथम् हि असित पद्माक्षी वर्तयेत् सा मया विना || ४-१-४८

48. yatra saa = where, she is; vasantam tam desham na spR^ishati = spring season, that, place, does not, touch; nuunam = definite is that; asita padma akshii = black, lotus, eyed one - Seetha; saa mayaa vinaa = she, me, without; katham vartayet hi = how can, [she,] comport, indeed

"Definitely this spring season will not touch that place where she is... and even if this touches that place, how can that lady with black-lotus-eyes can possibly comport without me! [4-1-48]

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अथवा वर्तते तत्र वसन्तो यत्र मे प्रिया |
किम् करिष्यति सुश्रोणी सा तु निर् भर्त्सिता परैः || ४-१-४९

49. athavaa = otherwise; me priyaa yatra vartate = my, dear, where, she lives; tatra vasantaH vartate api = there, spring, happens to be there, even if; paraiH nirbhartsitaa = by others, threatened; saa su shroNii kim kariSyati = she, fine waisted one, what can, she do.

"Otherwise, even if the spring happens to be there where my dear is, what can that fine waisted lady do under threat by others? [4-1-49]

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श्यामा पद्म पलाशाक्षी मृदु भाषा च मेम् प्रिया |
नूनम् वसन्तम् आसाद्य परित्यक्ष्यति जीवितम् || ४-१-५०

50. shyaamaa padma palaasha akshii = in midst of her youth, lotus, petal, eyed one; mR^idu bhaashiNii cha = soft spoken, also; me priyaa = my dear one; nuunam vasantam aasaadya = definitely, by spring, taken by; parityakshyati jiivitam = completely leaves, life.

"She in midst of her youth, eyes like lotus petals, also soft-spoken one is my dear one... and definitely taken by the spring she leaves her life... [4-1-50]

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दृढम् हि हृदये बुधिः मम संप्रतिवर्तते |
न अलम् वर्तयितुम् सीता साध्वी मत् विरहम् गता || ४-१-५१

51. hR^idaye mama budhiH dhR^iDham samparivartate hi = in heart, mine, notion, strong, is prevailing; mat viraham gataa = my, separation, obtained [separated from me,] chaste woman; Seetha; vartayitum = to live; na alam = not, be able to.

"Indeed in my heart a strong notion is prevailing that the chaste lady Seetha will be unable to live separated from me... [4-1-51]

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मयि भावो हि वैदेह्याः तत्त्वतो विनिवेशितः |
मम अपि भावः सीतायाम् सर्वधा विनिवेशितः || ४-१-५२

52. mayi bhaavaH tu vaidehyaaH = my, thoughts, alone, of Vaidehi; vi niveshitaH = well, biding; mama api bhaavaH siithaayaam = of me, also, thoughts, in Seetha; sarvadhaa vi niveshitaH = always, well, abide.

"My thoughts of Seetha alone are well biding in me, and in Seetha also thoughts about me will always be abiding... [4-1-52.]

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एष पुष्पवहो वायुः सुख स्पर्शो हिमावहः |
ताम् विचिन्तयतः कान्ताम् पावक प्रतिमो मम || ४-१-५३

53. eSa puSpa vahaH vaayuH = this, [fragrance of ] flowers, carrying, breeze; sukaha sparshaH = pleasant, for touch; himaa vahaH = snowy [coolness,] carrying; taam vi chintayataH kaantaam = of her, very much, worried, of lady; paavaka pratimaH mama = fire, like, to me.

"This breeze carrying fragrance of flowers is though pleasant for touch and though coolish like snow, this alone is like fire to me as I am very much worried about that lady... [4-1-53]

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सदा सुखम् अहम् मन्ये यम् पुरा सह सीताया |
मारुतः स विना सीताम् शोक संजनओ मम || ४-१-५४

54. puraa siitaayaa saha = earlier, Seetha, along with; sadaa sukham aham manye = always, happiness, I, felt; yam = by which [breeze]; = saH maarutaH = that, breeze [alone]; vinaa siitaam = without, Seetha; shoka vardhayate mama = anguish, increasing, in me.

"By which breeze I always felt happiness earlier along with Seetha... that breeze alone is increasing anguish in me without Seetha... [4-1-54]

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ताम् विन अथ विहङ्गो असौ पक्षी प्रणदितः तदा |
वायसः पादपगतः प्रहृष्टम् अभि कूजति || ४-१-५५

55. tadaa = then; viha~NgaH = on going to sky; praNaditaH = cawed; asau = that; pakShii = bird - crow; vaayasaH = crow; atha = now; taam vina = she, without; paadapagataH = going on tree; prahR^iShTam abhi kuujati = agreeably, well, cawing.

"When Seetha was with me, then this crow flew into the sky and cawed much indicating Seetha's departure from me, and now sitting on a tree it is cawing agreeably indicating early arrival of Seetha... [4-1-55]

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एष वै तत्र वैदेह्या विहगः प्रतिहारकः |
पक्षी माम् तु विशालाक्ष्याः समीपम् उपनेष्यति || ४-१-५६

56. tatra = there [then]; vihagaH = gone into sky; vaidehyaaH = of Vaidehi; pratihaarakaH = apahaarak = one who made happen abduction, an indicator; eSa pakshii = this, bird; maam vishaala akshyaaH = me, at that broad eyed Seetha's; samiipam upaneshyati = near to, will lead.

"This bird alone, then roving in the sky indicated about the abduction of Seetha... and this very same bird will now lead me near to that broad eyed one... [4-1-56]

"The boons and curses in Ramayana" is an exclusive subject and there are a variety of books on these subjects. So also, the prognostications are another subject. Special attention will be paid to the cawing of the crow, for Rama blessed the crow. A crow is said to have requested Rama to remove its ugly look. Rama instead of blessing the crow to look like a white-swan blessed it to be proficient in foretelling. The crow's cawing is for both good and bad omens, which even now is an accepted belief. If the crow roves over in the sky continuously cawing, it is bad omen. If it sits on nearby tree or wall and caws incessantly, it is good omen to get desired things or to indicate the arrival of dear ones etc. Such prognostications are available by way of bad dreams etc., at many places in Ramayana.

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पश्य लक्ष्मण संनादम् वने मद विवर्धनम् |
पुष्पित अग्रेषु वृक्षेषु द्विजानाम् अवकूजताम् || ४-१-५७

57. pashya lakshmana = see, Lakshmana; vane = in forest; puSpita agreSu vR^iksheSu = flowered, atop, on the trees; dvijaanaam avakuujatam = of birds, callings; mada vi vardhanam = passion, indeed, furthering samnaadam = appealing, tonality.

"Lakshmana, observe the appealing tonality of birds in the forest that calling out atop the flowered trees, that which is indeed furthering one's passion� [4-1-57]

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विक्षिप्ताम् पवनेन एताम् असौ तिलक मञ्जरीम् |
षट्पदः सहसा अभ्येति मद उद्धूताम् इव प्रियाम् || ४-१-५८

58. asau SaTpadaH pavanena vikshiptaam = that, honeybee, by wind, up-shoved; etaam = to these; tilaka manjariim = tilaka flowers' [red flowers], bouquets; mada uddhuutam priyaam iva = by vigour, up-heaved, loved one, as though; sahasaa abhyeti = quickly, reaching;.

"That honeybee is quickly reaching these red flowers bouquets of Tilaka that are like his loved ones that are raising their faces with vigour�[4-1-58]

The true devotee quickly grasps the nectar of knowledge from the teacher like the honeybee that quickly grasps the nectar of the flower, however vagrant the flower may be.

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कामिनाम् अयम् अत्यन्तम् अशोकः शोक वर्धनः |
स्तबकैः पवन उत्क्षिप्तैः तर्जयन् इव माम् स्थितः || ४-१-५९

59. kaaminaam = to the impassioned ones; atyantam shoka vardhanaH = very much, grief, enhancing; ayam ashokaH = that Ashoka tree; pavana utkshiptaiH = by wind, hustled up; stabakaiH maam tarjayan iva sthitaH = with, clusters of lowers, to daunt, as though, me, it is standing.

"To the impassioned ones that Ashoka tree is very much enhancing grief, and with its bouquets of flowers hustled up by the wind it is sanding as though to daunt me... [4-1-59]

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अमी लक्ष्मण दृश्यन्ते चूताः कुसुम शालिनः |
विभ्रम उत्सिक्त मनसः स अङ्गरागा नरा इव || ४-१-६०

60. Lakshmana; kushuma shaalinaH = flowers, bearing; amii chuutaaH = these, mango trees; vibhrama utsikta manasaa = flirtatiously, aroused, with heart; sa anga raaga = with, body, creamed; naraa iva dR^ishyante = men, like, appearing.

" Lakshmana, these mango trees bearing greenish yellow flower are appearing like men whose hearts are flirtatiously aroused, and who have creamed their bodies with greenish-yellow body cream� [4-1-60]

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सौमित्रे पश्य पम्पायाः चित्रासु वन राजिषु |
किंनरा नरशार्दूल विचरन्ति ततः ततः || ४-१-६१

61. nara shaarduula = manly tiger; Soumitri; pashya = see; pampaayaaH chitraasu vana raajiSu = Pampa's, amazing, forest, ranges; kinnaraa = nymphs; vicharanti tataH tataH = indeed moving, there, and there.

"Oh, tigerly man Soumitri, see these Pampa's amazing forests ranges... and therein the nymphs are moving, hither and yon... [4-1-61]

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इमानि शुभ गन्धीनि पश्य लक्ष्मण सर्वशः |
नलिनानि प्रकाशन्ते जले तरुण सूर्य वत् || ४-१-६२

62. pashya = see; Lakshmana; imaani nalinaani shubha gandhiini = these, blue lotuses, propitiously, fragrant; jale sarvashaH = in waters, everywhere; taruna suurya vat = tender, sun, like; prakaashante = glistening,

"See Lakshmana, these fragrant and propitious blue lotuses are everywhere in the waters, glistening like tender sun... [4-1-62]

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एषा प्रसन्न सलिला पद्म नील उत्पलायुता |
हंस कारण्डव आकीर्णा पम्पा सौगन्धिका युता || ४-१-६३

63. prasanna salilaa = with tranquil, waters; padma niilotpala yutaa = lotuses, costuses [blue water-lily's,] containing; eSaa this way, hamsa kaarandava akiirNaa = swans, marine birds, permeated with; sougandhikaa yutaa = with red lotuses, along with; eSaa pampaa [shobhate] = this, Pampa Lake, is shining forth.

"This Pampa Lake is shining forth with its tranquil waters, that contain lotuses, blue water-lily's, and red lotuses, along with swans and water-birds that permeate it � [4-1-63]

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जले तरुण सूर्याभैः षट्पद आहत केसरैः |
पन्कजैः शोभते पम्पा समन्तात् अभिसंवृता || ४-१-६४

64. pankajaiH = with lotuses; jale = in water; taruNa suurya aabhaiH = tender, sun, with resplendence; SaTpada ahata kesaraiH = honeybees, pilfered, pollen grains; samantaat abhi samvR^itaH = all over, well wrapped up; shobhate [eSaa pampaa] = beams forth, Pampa.

"Lotuses with the resplendence of tender sun enwrapping its waters, pollen grain pilfered by honeybees enwrapping those lotuses� with them this Pampa is beaming forth�

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चक्रवाक युता नित्यम् चित्र प्रस्थ वनान्तरा |
मातंग मृग यूथैः च शोभते सलिल अर्थिभिः || ४-१-६५

65. chakravaaka yuta nityam = ruddy geese, with, always; chitra prastha vana antara = amazing, areas, in forest, deeps; maatanga mR^iga yuudhaiH cha = elephants, deer, herds of, also; shobhate = bedecked; salila arthibhi = water, desiring ones [thirsty;][eSaa pampaa shobhate = this, Pampa. beams forth.]

"This Pampa is always bedecked with the ruddy geese, amazing deep areas of the forest, and with water thirsty herds of elephants and deer, and with them it gleams forth... [4-1-65]

There is a discussion whether Pampa is a lake or a river. There are two rivers in Karnataka State of India, one Tunga and the other Bhadra, at whose confluence it is called Tunga Bhadra. The Vijayanagara Empire built their capital Hampi at this place. The regional language Kannada uses ' ha ' for Sanskrit ' pa ' and hence Pampa is now called Hampi. Long before Vijayanagara dynasty, this place is ascribed to be Pampa, where the Kishkinda, the capital of monkey kings was situated. "The kingdom of Vanara or monkey race was in the north and west of Mysore, their chief city being Kishkindha near the village of Hampi on Tungabhadra..." Mysore and Conty Vol. I, page.178--Reie Vol. I pg. 146, and also in Bombay Gazetteer Vol. I pg. 142 of Dr. Bhandarkar. There are four copper plate inscriptions, dating around 3012 BC, at Shimoga District, Karnataka State, ascribing that Janamejaya, son of Parikshat makes grants to the Pampa area, because his great grand father Yudhisthara of Maha Bharata rested on the banks of Tungabhadra at this place. However there is a vast lake like formation at present day Hospet and Hampi in Karnataka State, where three rivers, namely Tungabhadra, Varada and Hagari and their tributaries etc., meet and disperse. This place is geographically at Long. 76�--78�, and Lat. 12�--16�.

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पवन आहत वेगाभिः ऊर्मिभिः विमले अंभसि |
पन्कजानि विराजन्ते ताड्यमानानि लक्ष्मण || ४-१-६६

66. Lakshmana; vimale ambhasi = in tranquil, waters; pavana aahata vegaabhiH = of wind, throbbed, by the speed; uurmibhiH = by ripples; taaDyamaanaani = pulsated; pankajaani viraajante = lotuses, appear beautifully.

"In the tranquil water the speed of wind is throbbing ripples, and the ripples throb the lotuses, thus the throbbing and rippling lotuses appear beautiful� [4-1-66]

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पद्म पत्र विशालाक्षीम् सततम् प्रिय पन्कजाम् |
अपश्यतो मे वैदेहीम् जीवितम् न अभिरोचते || ४-१-६७

67. padma patra vishhalaakshiim = lotus, petal like, broad eyed; satatam priya pankajaam = always, holds dear, lotuses; a pashyataH vaidehiim = not, seeing [finding,] Vaidehi; me jiivitam na abhirochate = to me, life, not, interesting.

"That one with lotus-petal-like broad eyes, who always holds the lotuses dear...without finding that Vaidehi... to me my life is uninteresting... [4-1-67]

Rama's tranquil heart is throbbing like the ripples in the waters, because the resident in that lotus like heart, Seetha is missing. Goddess Lakshmi sits in the lotus holding lotuses, like the pollen, and the vast lake of tranquil waters is the heart of Vishnu.

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अहो कामस्य वामत्वम् यो गताम् अपि दुर्लभाम् |
स्मारयिष्यति कल्याणीम् कल्याण तर वादिनीम् || ४-१-६८

68. aho kaamasya vaamatvam = Aha! Love God's, deviousness [is deplorable]; yaH = he who [that Manmadha]; gataam dur labham api = gone away [is Seetha,] can not, regain [her now,] even then; kalyaaNatara vaadiniim = graciously, articulating one; kalyaaNiim = about that graceful lady; smaara yiSyati = to reminisce, [love-god] wishes to.

"Aha! Deplorable is the deviousness of Love-god, for he is causing reminisces about that graceful lady who articulates that gracefully, even if she is gone away and cannot be regained now... [4-1-68]

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शक्यो धारयितुम् कामो भवेत् अभ्यागतो मया |
यदि भूयो वसन्तो माम् न हन्यात् पुष्पित द्रुमः || ४-१-६९

69. puSpitaH drumaH = with its flowered trees; vasantaH = this spring; [yadi ] na hanyaat = [if,] not, going to deaden [me]; bhuuyaH = forcefully; kaamaH = Love-god; adya aagataH = now, came upon; mayaa = by me; dhaarayitum = to tolerate; shakyaH = possible one

"If this spring with its flowered trees is not going to deaden me... the Love-god is a possible one to tolerate, though now he came upon me forcefully...[4-1-69]

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यानि स्म रमणीयानि तया सह भवन्ति मे |
तानि एव अरमणीयानि जायन्ते मे तया विना || ४-१-७०

70. tayaa saha = her, along with; yaani me ramNiiyaani bhavanti sma = which, to me, exhilarating [places or objects,] becoming, they are; taani eva tayaa vina a ramaNiiyaani jaayante = they, alone, she, without, un-exhilarating, they are becoming.

"All those places or objects that were delightful ones to me when she was with me, and they alone are now becoming anguishing ones to me...for she parted from me� [4-1-70]

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पद्मकोश पलाशानि द्रष्टुम् दृष्टिः हि मन्यते |
सीताया नेत्र कोशाभ्याम् सदृशान् इति लक्ष्मण || ४-१-७१

71. Lakshmana; siithaayaa netra koshaabhyaam = Seetha's, eyes, pair of; sadR^ishaan iti = alike, thus; dR^iShTiH = my sight; padma kosha palaashaani = lotus, bud's, petals; draShTum hi manyate = to gaze, indeed, is fascinated.

"To gaze the petals of the lotus buds my sight is fascinated... and in them I perceive the pair of Seetha's bud-like eyes...Oh! Lakshmana...and they are alike thus... [4-1-71]

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पद्म केसर संसृष्टो वृक्षान्तर विनिःसृतः |
निःश्वास इव सीताया वाति वायुः मनोहरः || ४-१-७२

72. padma = lotuses'; kesara = pollen; sam sR^iSTaH = well, carrying; vR^isksha = trees; antara = interior [in thickets]; vi nissR^ita = well, let out; niH shvaasaa = exhale; iva = like; siithaayaa = of Seetha; vaati = blowing; vaayuH = breeze; manaH = heart; haraH = stealing one.

"This breeze� let out from within the thickets of forests, breezing touching the pollen of lotuses, is reminding Seetha's exhale, as such it is heart-stealing� [4-1-72]

This verse is well explained by the ancient commentators in many derivatives. Some of them are:

1] Rama wanted to take comfort in the breeze, at least. But that breeze itself is troubling him, because it is carrying the fragrance of the pollen of lotuses, which is like the fragrance of Seetha's breath. surabhi nishvashite dadatahtrishaam as in laxana shaastra . Exhale of the beloved bears a kind of fragrance, which is known only to her lover. Seetha also holds the lotus dear and every aspect of Seetha is lotus oriented and thus Rama's remembering of Seetha by seeing lotuses. [Ibid. satatam priya pankajaam - 4-1-67.]

2] Goddess Lakshmi sits in the middle of the lotus, which will be in the heart of Vishnu. As of now She is stolen and Rama could not avert it. Hence the lotuses are angered at the loss of their resident Goddess Lakshmi, are taking the help of the breeze to carry the scent of the pollen, which is akin to Seetha's breath, and invade Rama's heart, to regain their tenant. Then a question arises as to why Rama confronts the invasion of this spring breeze without going away from there. In reply it is said that this breeze is like Seetha's breath, and it is coming from out of the thickets of the forests. So she must be around and appear to him any moment. Regaining Seetha is prime ordeal than the invasion of the cool spring breeze.

3] Another way of putting this is: -- padma = Goddess Lakshmi; kesara - or - kesaraiH = affection, like fragrant pollen; samshR^iSTaH = carrying; vR^iksha antara vi nisshruta = tree of the Universe, within it, emitted; nishvaasa iva = uninterrupted breathe, like; siithaayaa = of Nature [Seetha the feminine, is symbolised with the whole creative Universe,] vaayuH = all-pervading ether [mythical]; manaH = [sins of] heart; haraH = stealing/obliterating one.

This is based on the ashwattha structure of the Universe.

1 uurdhva muulo'vaak shaakha eSho ashvatthaH sanaatanaH || 2-6-1 - kaThopanishad
2 uurthvamuulam athaH shaakham ashvattha~N praahuravyaya~N ||15_1-3 - bhagavadgiita


The roots of Aswattha tree [the Holy fig tree, Ficus Religiosa, meaning that: shva = tomorrow; na stha = not there; the tree of the Universe that will not be there tomorrow, i.e., this Universe perishes, are inthe firmament and its stem, branches, and leaves spread upside down as this Universe. This is similar to the Igdrasil of Scandinavian mythology. Goddess Lakshmi sitting in Her Divine Lotus in empyrean abode exhales Her uninterrupted affection as the all-pervading ether, within the tree i.e., Universe, which is the life principle. When the created being is endowed with Her affection, but becomes a sinner, She recommends even that sinner to the Almighty Vishnu for obliteration of his sins and to accord salvation. Hence Vaishnavites demand heart-pouring devotion to the Almighty, than indulging in earthly cherishing. This is termed as nirhetuka satata dyaa prasaara i.e., without any precondition the grace of Goddess Lakshmi always flows.

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सौमित्रे पश्य पम्पाया दक्षिणे गिरि सानुषु |
पुष्पितान् कर्णिकारस्य यष्टिम् परम शोभिताम् || ४-१-७३

73. Soumitri; pashya = see pampayaa = Pampa's; dakSiNe giri saanuSu = southern, hill, on terraces; puSpitaam karNikaarasya = flowered, karnikara trees [Pentepetes Acerifolia]; yaSTim parama shobhitaam = tree-trunks, highly, splendorous.

"Soumitri, see those flowered Karnikara trees with their tree-trunks on those southern hill-terraces of Pampa, they are highly splendorous... [4-1-73]

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अधिकम् शैल राजोऽयम् धातुभिः तु विभूषितः |
विचित्रम् सृजते रेणुम् वायु वेग विघट्टितम् || ४-१-७४

74. dhaatubhiH = minerals; vibhuuSitaH = ornamented with [impregnated with]; ayam shaila rajaH = this, mountain, kingly; vaayua vega nighaTTitam = by wind's, speed, drifted by; vichitram reNum adhikam sR^ijate = wondrous, dust, muchly, creating [exhausting.]

"That one, that kingly mountain which is ornamentally impregnated with ores and minerals is exhausting much mass of wondrous dust with the colour of its ores, that is drifted by the wind's speed... [4-1-74]

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गिरि प्रस्थास्तु सौमित्रे सर्वतः संप्रपुष्पितैः |
निष्पत्रैः सर्वतो रम्यैः प्रदीप्ता इव किंशुकैः || ४-१-७५

75. giri prasthaaH tu = mountain, sides, even; Soumitri; sarvataH sam pra pushpitaH = all over, fully, well, flowered; nisH patraiH sarvataH ramyaiH = without, leaves [hiding the leaves,] all over, exquisite; pradiipta iva kimshukaiH = aglow, like, with Kimshuka trees [Butea frondosa] trees.

"On the mountainsides, Soumitri, all over fully flowered are the exquisite Kimshuka trees, while their leaves are hidden under those reddish flowers, and with them that mountain is as though aglow... [4-1-75]

The mountains always have similitude with kings as they stand high and noble on the land. The Himalaya is King Himavant, the father of Goddess Parvati, Shiva's consort. So also here the Rishyamuka Mountain, where Sugreeva takes asylum, is termed as a kingly mountain and Rama has not yet known the name of this mountain. On this mountain there are coloured dust splashes hiding the greenery of leaves, and the flowers are luminous in red colour, all over. This is indicating that the Kingly Mountain Rishyamuka is inviting the other King Rama or Rama the divine, with an incensed camphor, that will be red in glow and emits coloured smoke. This is the mangala aarati , the auspicious camphor-torch deference offered to kings of deities.

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पम्पा तीर रुहाः च इमे संसक्ता मधु गन्धिनः |
मालती मल्लिका पद्म करवीराः च पुष्पिताः || ४-१-७६

76. pampaa tiira ruhaaH = on Pampa's, banks, grlown up; ime samsikta madhu gandhinaH = these, wetted, with nectar, fragrance; malatii = Jasminum grandiflorum; mallikaa = jasmine; padma = water-lilies; karaviira = red oleanders; cha pushpitaaH = also, flowered.

"On the banks of Pampa these jasmines, water-lilies, red oleanders have grown up and they are now flowered that is wetted with the fragrance of nectar...[4-1-76]

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केतक्यः सिन्धुवाराः च वासन्त्यः च सुपुष्पिताः |
माधव्यो गन्धपूर्णाः च कुंदगुल्माः च सर्वशः || ४-१-७७

77. ketakyaH = mogra bushes [Pandanus odra tissimus]; sindhuvaaraaH cha = sinduka [Vitex trifoia]; vaasantyaaH = [Gaertnera racemosa]; su pushpitaaH = well, flowered; maadhavyaaH = [Gaertnera racemosa]; gandha puuraaH cha = fragrance, full of, also; kunda gulmaaH cha = jasmine multiflorum, bushes, also; sarvashaH = every where.

"The Mogra bushes, Sinduka, Vaasanti are well flowered. Maadhavi, flowers are also fully fragrant, and everywhere there are bushes of Jasmine... [4-1-77]

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चिरिबिल्वा मधूकाः च वञ्जुला वकुलाः तथा |
चम्पकाः तिलकाः च एव नागवृक्षाः च पुष्पिताः || ४-१-७८

78. chira bilwaaH = saplings of bilva [Eagle marmelos]; madhuukaaH cha = [Bassia latifolia]; also; manjulaaH = charming are; vakulaaH tathaa = Mimusops elengi, like that; champakaaH = [Michelia champaca]; tilkaaH = tilaka; cha eva = also, like that; naaga vrikshaa = Mesualferrea trees; pushpitaaH = well, flowered. [4-1-78]

"Charming are the saplings of Bilva, and Madhooka, and plants like Vakula, Champaka, Tilaka, Naaga trees are well flowered.... [4-1-78]

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पद्मकाः च एव शोभन्ते नील अशोकाः च पुष्पिताः
लोध्राः च गिरि पृष्ठेषु सिंह केसर पिन्जराः || ४-१-७९

79. padmakaaH = Ovieda verticellata; eva = thus; shobhante = well, flourishing; niila ashokaH cha = blue ashoka, also; pushpitaaH = flowered; lodhraaH cha = Tymplocos racemosa, also; griri pR^iSTeshu = on mountain, terraces; simha kesara pinjaraaH = lion's, mane, brownish.

"Padmaka plants are well flourishing, and like that Neela, Ashoka are also flowered... trees on the mountain terraces namely Lodhra trees are brownish like lion's mane... [4-1-79]

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अन्कोलाः च कुरण्टाः च पूर्णकाः पारिभद्रकाः |
चूताः पाटलयः च अपि कोविदाराः च पुष्पिताः || ४-१-८०

80. ankolaaH cha = Alangium trees, also; kurantaH cha = Kurntaka, also; PoornakaaH = Poornaka trees, also; PaaribhadrakaaH = devadaaru [Uvaria longifolia.] chootaaH = mango trees; paatalayaH = Bignonia suave olens; cha eva = also, like that; kovidaaraaH cha = Mountain ebony [Bauhinia varigegata]; pushpitaaH = flowered.

"The trees of Alangium, Kurntaka, Poornaka, Devadaaru, and also the Mango trees, and like that Patala trees, and the trees of Mountain ebony are flowered...[4-1-80]

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मुचुकुंद अर्जुनाः च एव दृश्यन्ते गिरिसानुषु
केतक उद्दालकाः च एव शिरीषाः शिंशुपा धवाः || १-४-८१

81. muchukunda = muchulinda trees; arjuana = Terminalia Arjuna trees; cha eva = also, like that; dR^ishyante = are seen; giri saanushu = on mountain terraces; ketaka = date trees; uddaalakaaH = Gordia myxa trees; cha eva = also, like that; shireesha = Mimosa sirisha; simshupa = simshupa trees; dhavaa = dhava trees.

"Muchukunda trees, also Arjuna trees are seen on mountain terraces...Date palm trees, Uddaalaka trees also... like that the Shiriisha tree, simshupa trees, and dhava trees... [4-1-81]

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शाल्मल्यः किंशुकाः च एव रक्ताः कुरवकाः तथा |
तिनिशा नक्तमालाः च चंदनाः स्यंदनाः तथा || १-४-८२

82. shaalmalyaH = silk cotton trees; kimshukaaH = palaasha[Butea frondosa]; cha eva = also, like that; raktaah kuravaka = red, mehandi [Globe amaranat]; tathaa = thus; tinishaaH = Dalberegia Oujeinesis; naktamaalaH = Galedupa arborea trees; cha = also; chandanaaH = sandalwood trees; syandanaaH = syandanaa trees; tathaa = thus.

"Silk cotton trees, palaasha trees also, like that are red mehandi trees, thus are Tinisha and Naktamaala trees, sandalwood trees, spandana trees are all thus well flowered... [4-1-82]

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हिन्तालः तिलकाः च एव नाग वृक्षाः च पुष्पिताः |
पुष्पितान् पुष्पित अग्राभिः लताभिः परिवेष्टितान् || ४-१-८३

83. hintaalaH = hintaala trees; ca eva = also like that; tilaka = tilaka; naaga vR^iksha ca = naagaa trees also; pushpitaan = flowered; pushpita agraabhiH = flowered, apices; lataabhiH = by climber-planmts; pari vesSTitaan = enfolded.

"Flowered are the trees like hintaala, tilaka, and naaga trees, and they are enfolded by the flowered climber-plants at their apices... [4-1-83]

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द्रुमान् पश्य इह सौमित्रे पम्पाया रुचिरान् बहून् |
वात विक्षिप्त विटपान् यथा आसन्नान् द्रुमान् इमान् || ४-१-८४
लताः समनुवर्तन्ते मत्ता इव वर स्त्रियः |

84, 85a. drumaan pashya iha = trees, see, here; Soumitri; pampaayaa ruchiraan bahuun = of Pampa, splendorous, very many; vaata vikshipta viTapaan = by wind, bestirred, branches; yathaa aasannaan drumaan imaan = as though, nearby, trees, these are; lathaaH sam anuvartante = climber-plants, well, bear upon; mattaa iva vara striyaH = passionate, like, doting, women.

"See the splendorous trees of Pampa here, oh! Soumitri...their branches bestirred by wind and bend onto other trees, as though these trees are nearby and within the reach of climber-plants... thus the climber-plants passionately bear upon those trees, like the doting of passionate women... [ [4-1-84, 85a]

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पादपात् पादपम् गच्छन् शैलात् शैलम् वनात् वनम् || ४-१-८५
वाति न एक रस आस्वाद सम्मोदित इव अनिलः |

85b. anila = breeze; na eka rasa aasvaada sammodita iva = not, with one, aroma, on savouring, happy, as though; paadapaat paadapam = from tree to tree; vanaat vanam = from forest to forest shailaat shailam = from mountain to mountain; gacchan = while going; vaati = is gliding.

"And the breeze is perhaps unhappy by savouring only one kind of nectarine aroma, hence it appears to be gliding from tree to tree, forest to forest, mountain to mountain... while going from tree to tree, mountain to mountain, forest to forest... [4-1-85b, 86a]

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केचित् पर्याप्त कुसुमाः पादपा मधु गन्धिनः || ४-१-८६
केचित् मुकुल संवीताः श्याम वर्णा इव आबभुः |

86b 87a. madhu gandhinaH = with nectar, fragrance; kechit paadapaa = some, trees; paryaapta kusumaaH = are full with, flowers; kechit mukula samviitaa = some, with buds, enveloped; shyaamaa varNaa iva babhuH = dark, in colour, thus, they shine forth.

"Some trees are full with flowers whose nectar is fragrant, and some shine forth with dark colour as they are enveloped with buds... [4-1-86b, 87a]

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इदम् मृष्टम् इदम् स्वादु प्रफुल्लम् इदम् इत्यपि || ४-१-८७
राग युक्तो मधुकरः कुसुमेषु आवलीयते ||

87b, 88a. raaga yuktaH = fondness, having; madhu karaH = honey, maker [honeybee]; idam mR^iSTam = this one, pure; idam svaadu = this one, delicious; idam prahullam iti = this one, well bloomed, thus [assessing]; kushumeSu eva liiyate = into flowers, thus, plunging.

"And the honeybee on assessing each of the flower as 'this one is pure... this one is delicious... and this one is well bloomed...' is plunging into them... [4-1-87b, 88a]

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निलीय पुनर् उत्पत्य सहसा अन्यत्र गच्छति |
मधु लुब्धो मधुकरः पंपा तीर द्रुमेषु असौ || ४-१-८८

88. niliiya = on plunging; punaH utpatya = again, coming up; sahasaa anyatra gacChati = quickly, somewhere else, going; madhu lubdhaH madhukaraH = nectar, avaricious, honeybee; pampa tiira drumeSu asau = Pampa, banks, among trees, those.

"On plunging into the flowers that nectar-avaricious honeybee is again coming up, and quickly going elsewhere in the trees on the banks of Pampa... [4-1-8]

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इयम् कुसुम सन्घातैः उपस्तीर्णा सुखा कृता |
स्वयम् निपतितैः भूमिः शयन प्रस्तरैः इव || ४-१-८९

89. svayam ni patitaiH = on their own, indeed, fallen; kusuma sanghaataiH = with flowers, clusters of; shayana prastharaiH iva = bed, laid on, like; upastiirNaa = spread out; iyam bhuumiH = this, ground is; sukhaa kR^iitaH = comfort, endowing;

"These clusters of flowers that have fallen on their own are spreading out like a bed of flowers laid on, with them the ground appears to endow comfort... [4-1-89]

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विविधा विविधैः पुष्पैः तैः एव नगसानुषु |
विस्तेएर्णाः पीत रक्ताभा सौमित्रे प्रस्तराः कृताः || १-४-९०

90. naga saanuSu = on mountain, slopes; vividhaiH puSpaiH eva vistiirnaaH = with varied, flowers, only, spread out; vividhaa prastaraaH kR^itaa piita rakta aabhaaH = diverse, mountain, slabs, rendered into, yellow, red, hues.

"On mountain slopes varied flowers are spread out, with them the colour of diverse mountain slabs is rendered into yellow-red hue... [4-1-90]

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हिमान्ते पश्य सौमित्रे वृक्षाणाम् पुष्प संभवम् |
पुष्प मासे हि तरवः संघर्षात् इव पुष्पिताः || ४-१-९१

91. sauumitri = Soumitri; hima ante = winter, at end of; puSpa maase = flowering, month [Chaitra, April-May]; vrR^ikshaaNaam puSpa sambhavam = of trees, flowers, bloom; pashya = see; taravaH = trees; samgharSaat iva puSpitaaH hi = with competition, flowered, indeed, as though.

"Soumitri see the bloom of flowers in spring after winter, as if the trees have indeed bore the flowers in competition with one another... [4-1-91]

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आह्वयन्त इव अन्योन्यम् नगाः षट्पद नादिताः |
कुसुमोत्तंस विटपाः शोभन्ते बहु लक्ष्मण || ४-१-९२

92. aahvaanyanta iva anyonyam = inviting, as though, mutually [with their swinging branches]; nagaaH = trees; SaTpada naaditaH; honeybee, droned with [where the drones appear to be the talk of trees]; kusuma uttamsa viTapaa = flowers, atop, trees; shobhante bahu = look attractive, highly; Lakshmana.

"The drones of honeybees among the trees with flowered treetops appear to be the talk of trees, and the swinging branches of trees appear to be their invitational gestures to one another, thus those trees look highly attractive... [4-1-92]

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एष कारण्डवः पक्षी विगाह्या सलिलम् शुभम् |
रमते कान्ताया सार्थम् कामम् उद्दीपयन् इव || ४-१-९३

93. eSha kaaraNDava pakshii = this, partridge, bird; vigaahya salilam shubham = entering, water, blessed; ramate kaantaayaa saartham = rejoicing, with female, together; kaamam uddiipayan mama = desire, kindling, in me.

"Entering the blessed waters this bird, partridge, is rejoicing together with his female, kindling desire in me too... [4-1-93]

The question of self-control of Rama in indulgence is discussed here. Rama's libido is not expressed after the abduction of Seetha, until his entry into the area of Pampa or its forests. Here, in these surroundings of Pampa, the spring season is at its height and the nature is adding fire to his fuelling desire. What anyone can do but to lament about his unconsummated desire? That too, when Manmadha, the Love God, assumes the charge of this particular Chaitra month, or spring season, it is impossible to play-act celibacy. For more details about such a condition, Gosvami Tulasi Das is perhaps the best poet to narrate in Ram Charita Manas, at Doha 73 to 76 of Baala Kaanda. Narrated in there is, that the saints and sages lost their loincloths, chastity belts peeled off on their own, and entire social order went topsy-turvy, when Manmadha took charge of the Universe for only a few moments, to kindle Shiva's love towards Parvati. As such the nature at Pampa itself has become a love god to Rama, to pour out his passion for Seetha.

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मंदकिन्यास्तु यदिदम् रूपम् एतन् मनोररम् |
स्थाने जगति विख्याता गुणाः तस्या मनोरमाः || ४-१-९४

94. etat manaoharam = this sort of, heart-stealing nature; yat idam ruupam = which, this, sort of [ atmosphere of Pampa]; mandaakinyaaH tu = for River Ganga are there, but; tasyaa manaaH ramaa guNaaH = its [of Pampa,] heart, pleasing, attributes; jagati vikhyaataa sthaane = in world, renowned, it is reasonable.

"This sort of heart pleasing nature is also available with River Ganga, and that alone reasonably signifies the popularity of River Pampa in the world... [4-1-94]

Mahesvara Tirtha records the meaning of this verse in another way. "If this sort of love kindling atmosphere is there to River Ganga, it would have been the world's best environ..." But River Ganga is a Holy one and this environ cannot be there. This stanza signifies that Pampa is a river but not a vast lake, and all these narrations of longing epitomises the longing for a true friend like Sugreeva or Hanuma, or for Rama's life-mate Seetha.

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यदि दृश्येत सा साध्वी यदि च इह वसेम हि |
स्पृहयेयम् न शक्राय न अयोध्यायै रघूत्तम || ४-१-९५

95. Raghu uttama = Raghu's, best from - Lakshmana; saadhvii = devoted lady; yadi dR^ishyeta = if, she is seen [found]; yadi cha iha vasema hi = if, also, here only, we reside, indeed; shakraaya = not, Indra's [throne]; na sprR^iha yeyam = I think of, about that; na ayodhyaayai = not, of Ayodhya.

"If that devot lady Seetha is found, and also if we were to stay here only, I neither think about Indra's throne in Heavens nor Ayodhya's throne, which is like Indra's throne on the earth... [4-1-95]

The word shakraaya is in Dative case, meaning that the throne of Ayodhya is meant for an Indra-like ruler on earth, and qualifies for a demonstrative adjectival expression in its adjacency principle. As such Rama is pondering over negating the kingdom, i.e., the Rajya Lakshmi, in comparison with Seetha, who is his Bhaagya Lakshmi. Kalidasa, in Raghuvamsha, depicts what this Bhagya Lakshmi has to say, when Rama, basing on some satirical remarks of his lowly subject deserts Seetha.

upasthitaam puurvam apaasya lakShmiim vanam mayaa saarthamasi prapannaH |
tadaaspadam praapya tayaati roShaat soDhaa asmi na tad bhavane vasantii ||
raghuvamsha, XIV.63

" Earlier, you refused the kingdom-fortune, [Rajya Lakshmi,] and came to forests, where I was with you. Now that, that kingdom-fortune, Rajya Lakshmi winning your affection, is jealous of me i.e., Bhagya Lakshmi, and she does not let me live in your palace.

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न हि एवम् रमणीयेषु शाद्वलेषु तया सह |
रमतो मे भवेत् चिन्ता न स्पृहा अन्येषु वा भवेत् ||४-१-९६

96. na = nay; hi evam = indeed, this way; ramaNiiyeSu shaadvaleSu = in pleasant, green meadows; tayaa saha = with her, along; ramataH bhavet = delighting, happens to be; na me bhavet chintaa = not, to me, there will be, worry; spR^ihaa anyeSu na bhavet = interestedness, in other, there will not be; vaa = either.

"Nay... if I were to take delight this way in these pleasant green meadows along with her, there will be no worry to me... nor interest in other things... [4-1-96]

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अमी हि विविधैः पुष्पैः तरवो रुचिर च्छदाः |
कानने अस्मिन् विना कान्ताम् चित्तम् उत्पादयन्ति मे || ४-१-९७

97. ruchiraH cChadaaH = with beautiful, leaves; amii taravaH = these, trees; hi vividhaiH puSpaiH = indeed, with various, flowers; asmin kaanane = in this, forest; vinaa kaantaam = without, the lady; chittam unmaadayanti me = heart, maddening, to me.

"Indeed these beautifully leaved and variously flowered trees are maddening my heart as I am without that lady Seetha in this forest... [4-1-97]

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पश्य शीत जलाम् च इमाम् सौमित्रे पुष्कर आयुताम् |
चक्रवाक अनुचरिताम् कारण्डव निषेविताम् || ४-१-९८

98. pashya = see; shiita jalaam cha imam = cool, water, also, this one; Soumitri; puSkara aayutam = blue lotuses, [Nelemblum speciosum,] filled with; chakravaaka anu charitam = ruddy geese, well, moving; kaaranDava nishevitaam = partridge birds, well, venerated.

"See the cool water of this Pampa Lake, Soumitri, filled with blue lotuses, and with ruddy geese well moving in, and well venerated by the partridge birds...[4-1-98]

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प्लवैः क्रौञ्चैः च संपूर्णाम् महा मृग निषेविताम् |
अधिकम् शोभते पम्पा विकूजद्भिः विहङ्गमैः || ४-१-९९

99. plavaiH krouncha cha sampuurNaam = waterfowls, curlew birds, also, filled with; mahaa mR^iga niSevitaam = by great animals, adored; adhikam shobhate pampa = highly, glistens, is this Pampa; vi kuujadbhiH vihangamaiH = with pleasantly calling, birds.

"Well filled with waterfowls, curlew birds, and adored by great animals, this Pampa glistens much with pleasantly calling birds...[4-1-99]

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दीपयन्ती इव मे कामम् विविधा मुदिता द्विजाः |
श्यामाम् चन्द्र मुखीम् स्मृत्वा प्रियाम् पद्म निभ ईक्षणाम् || ४-१-१००

100. diipayantii iva me kaamam = enkindling, as if, my, passion; vividhaa muditaa dvijaa = umpteen, gladdened, birds; shyaamaam chandra mukhiim = mid-in-youth, moon, faced; smR^itvaa priyam = reminding of, dear one; padma nibha iikshNaam = lotus, radiance, in her eyes.

"Enkindling passion in me, are these umpteen gladdened birds, reminding me of my dear one who is in the mid of her youth, moonfaced, and with the radiance of lotuses in her eyes... [4-1-100]

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पश्य सानुषु चित्रेषु मृगीभिः सहितान् मृगान् |
माम् पुनः मृग शबाक्षी वैदेह्या विरहीकृतम् |
व्यधयन्तीव मे चित्तम् संचरन्तः ततः ततः || ४-१-१०१

101. pashya = see; chitreSu saanuSu = on wonderful, mountainsides; mR^igiibhiH sahitaan mR^igaan = with female deer, with, male deer; tataH tataH = there and there; sancharantaH = moving; mR^igashaaba akshyaa = with fawn-eyed one; vaidehyaa = with Vaidehi; virahii kR^itaam = weaned away; maam = me [such as I am]; punaH vyadhayanti iva = further, agonising, as though; me cittam = my, heart is [ thus agonised.]

"See that female deer along with male deer moving there and there on those wonderful mountainsides... and at me, who am weaned away from such a fawn-eyed lady Seetha... and such as I am, my heart is further agonised on seeing these wide-eyed deer, and for not seeing her, the wide-eyed Seetha... [4-1-101]

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अस्मिन् सानुनि रम्ये हि मत्त द्विज गणाकुले |
पश्य अयम् यदि ताम् कन्ताम् ततः स्वस्ति भवेत् मम || ४-१-१०२

102. ramye = spectacular; matta dwija gaNa akule = [the place with] impassioned, birds, groups, with ado; asmin saanuni hi = on those, terraces; taam kaantaam pashya ayam yadi = her, that lady, if only I can see; tataH mama swasti bhavet = then, to me, peace, will be there.

"If only I can see that lady on those spectacular terraces filled with impassioned bird groups with much ado, then there shall be peace for me... [4-1-102]

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जीवेयम् खलु सौमित्रे मया सह सुमध्यमा |
सेवेत यदि वैदेही पम्पायाः पवनम् शुभम् || ४-१-१०३

103. su madhyama = slender-waisted one; vaidehii mayaa saha = Seetha, me, along with; pampaayaaH shubham pavanam = Pampa's, benignant, breeze; seveta yadi = adores, if; jiiveyam khalu = I will live along, surely.

"I live along for sure, Soumitri, if that slender-waisted Vaidehi basks in this benignant breeze of Pampa along with me... [4-1-103]

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पद्म सौगन्धिक वहम् शिवम् शोक विनाशनम् |
धन्या लक्ष्मण सेवन्ते पम्पाया वन मरुतम् || ४-१-१०४

104. Lakshmana; padma = lotuses; saugandhika vaham = red lotuses, fragrance carrying; shivam = auspicious one; shoka vinaashanam = melancholy, eliminating one; pampa upavana maarutam = Pampa's, greensward, breeze; dhanyaa = fortunate are; sevante = those that adore it.

""Lakshmana, the breeze from the greenswards of Pampa that carries the fragrance of lotuses including that of red lotuses is an auspicious one, an eliminator of melancholy, and those that adore such a breeze are fortunate ones... [4-1-104]

Another rendering is: padma red lotuses', sougandhika of costuses, vaham = fragrance carrying, i.e. carrying the fragrance of many flowers as though in a garland of flowers on its chest; shivam pure, uncontaminated breeze, i.e., the first breeze of the season. dhanyaaH fortunate, sevante those that await and adore. Those couples that await this first breeze, emerging from the gardens of Pampa Lake, carrying fragrance of many a flower, like that of a garland of flowers, are fortunate.

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श्यमा पद्म पलाशाक्षी प्रिया विरहिता मया |
कथम् धरयति प्राणान् विवशा जनकात्मजा || ४-१-१०५

105. shyaamaa = youthful; padma palaasha akshii = lotus, petal, eyed; priyaa = my beloved; virahitaa mayaa = without, me; katham = how; dhaarayatii praaNaan = bears, her lives; vivashaa janaka aatmaja = helpless, Janaka's daughter.

"That youthful, lotus-petal eyed beloved of mine, that Janaka's daughter... how can that helpless lady bear her lives without me... [4-1-105]

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किम् नु वक्ष्यामि धर्मज्ञम् राजानम् सत्य वादिनम् |
जनकम् पृष्ट सीतम् तम् कुशलम् जन संसदि || ४-१-१०६

106. jana samsadi = among people, host of; pR^iSTa siitam = [when he] questions about, Seetha; dharmaGYam satya vaadinam raajaanam = to virtuous one, truth speaking one, one who is a king; tam = to him; janakam = to king Janaka; kim nu kushalam vakshyaami = what can, indeed, about well-being, I can say.

"What sort of well-being can I say to that virtuous and truth speaking King Janaka, if he enquires about Seetha's well-being among hosts of people? [4-1-106]

Seetha is an unusual princess by birth. Winning her hand in marriage is unusually preconditioned by King Janaka with the lifting of Shiva's bow, which none else could do than Rama. Having won Seetha's hand in marriage, but lost her in the forest, will be ridiculous. Rama reflects here as to how his father-in-law King Janaka would lookdown Rama for not protecting his daughter Seetha.

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या मम् अनुगता मन्दम् पित्रा प्रस्थापितुम् वनम् |
सीता धर्मम् समास्थय क्व नु सा वर्तते प्रिया || ४-१-१०७

107. pitraa prasthaapitam vanam = ; by father [Dasharatha,] sent to, forest; mandam maam yaa = unfortunate one, me, she who; dharmam samaasthaaya anugataa = virtuous course, on taking up, accompanied; saa priyaa kva nu vartate = such as she is, ladylove, where, really, is staying.

"She who accompanied me, an unfortunate one whom his father sent to forests, taking up a virtuous course... now where will be she, that ladylove of mine, be abiding... [4-1-107]

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तया विहीनः कृपणः कथम् लक्ष्मण धारये |
य माम् अनुगता रज्यात् भ्रष्टम् विहत चेतसम् || ४-१-१०८

108. lakshmaNa = Lakshmana; raajyaat bhraSTam vigata chetasam = from kingdom, forfeited, with forfeited, quintessence; maam yaa anugataa = me, she who, accompanied; tayaa vihiinaH kR^ipaNaH = her, without, desolated; katham dhaaraye = how, live on.

"Whose kingdom is forfeited, and whose soul succumbed to the circumstance at the time of exile, but she accompanied suchlike me, and Lakshmana, without her how I can I live on in desolation... [4-1-108]

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तत् चारु अञ्चित पद्माक्षम् सुगन्धि शुभम् अव्रणम् |
अपश्यतो मुखम् तस्याः सीदति इव मतिः मम || ४-१-१०९

109. tasyaaH = her; chaaru = pretty; anchita = beaming; padmaaksham = having lotus-like eyes; sugandhi shubham = fragrant, auspicious; a vranam = without, scars - scarless; tat mukham = that, face; a pashyataH = unable to see; mama matiH siidati iva = my, mind, is sinking, as though.

"She who has a pretty and beaming face with lotus-like eyes, that is fragrant, auspicious and scarless, and not seeing such a face my mind is as though sinking... [4-1-109]

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स्मित हास्यान्तर युतम् गुणवत् मधुरम् हितम् |
वैदेह्याः वाक्यम् अतुलम् कदा श्रोष्यामि लक्ष्मण || ४-१-११०

110. Lakshmana; vaidehyaaH = Vaidehi's; smita haasya antara yutam = smiling, witty, in between, having; guNavat = wisdom-wise; madhuram = pleasing; hitam = friendly; atulam vaakyam = incomparable [unique in its own way,] sentence [conversation]; kadaa shroSyaami = when, can I hear.

" Lakshmana, when can I hear that conversation of Vaidehi that will have smiles and wits in between... wisdom wise pleasing, friendly and unique one in its own way... [4-1-110]

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प्राप्य दुःखम् वने श्यामा माम् मन्मध विकर्शितम् |
नष्ट दुःखेव हृष्टेव साध्वी साधु अभ्यभाषत || ४-१-१११

111. shyamaa = youthful lady; sadhvii = decent lady; praapya duHkham vane = succumbed, to suffering, in forest; naSTa duHkha iva = got rid of, suffering, as though; hR^iSTaa iva = gladsome, as though; maam manmadha vikarshitam = me, by love, smitten; saadhu abhyabhaashata = [very] fondly, speaking.

"That youthful and decent lady though succumbed to suffering in forests used to look as though got rid of her sufferings, and as though gladsome woman, and she used to speak to me, one smitten by her love, very fondly... [4-1-111]

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किम् नु वक्ष्यामि अयोध्यायाम् कौसल्याम् हि नृपात्मज |
क्व सा स्नुषा इति पृच्छन्तीम् कथम् च अति मनस्विनीम् || ४-१-११२

112. nR^ipa aatmaja = oh! Prince Lakshmana; ayodhyaam = in Ayodhya; saa kva suSnaa = she, where is, daughter-in-law [of mine]; katham api = how is she, even; iti pR^icChantiim = thus, questioning; manasviniim = kind hearted lady kausalyaam = to Kausalya; kim nu vakshyami = what, indeed, can I say.

"What can I say in Ayodhya to that kind hearted lady and my mother Kausalya, oh, prince Lakshmana, when she asks �where is she, my daughter-in-law? And how is she? ' [4-1-112]

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गच्छ लक्ष्मण पश्य त्वम् भरतम् भ्रातृउ वत्सलम् |
न हि अहम् जीवितुम् शक्तः ताम् ऋते जनकात्मजम् || ४-१-११३

113. Lakshmana; tvam gacCha = you, begone; bhraatR^iu vatsalam = towards brothers, affectionate one; bharatam = Bharata; pashya = you may see; aham taam aatmajaam R^ite = I, her, janaka's, daughter, leaving off; jiivitum na shakataH hi = to live, not, be able to, isn't it.

"Begone! Lakshmana.... you may see Bharata, that affectionate one for his brothers... I may not be able to live on leaving off Seetha... isn't so!" [So said Rama to Lakshmana] [4-1-113]

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इति रामम् महात्मानम् विलपन्तम् अनाथ वत् |
उवाच लक्ष्मणो भ्राता वचनम् युक्तम् अव्ययम् || ४-१-११४

114. iti = this way; anaatha vat vilapantam = waif, like, wailing; mahaatmaanam raamam = to great soul, Rama; bhraataa = his brother; Lakshmana; yuktam avyayam vachanam = appropriate, infallible, words; uvaacha = spoke.

To that great-souled Rama who is bewailing that way like a waif, his brother Lakshmana said these appropriate and infallible words. [4-1-114]

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संस्थम्भ राम भद्रम् ते मा शुचः पुरुषोत्तम |
न ईदृइशानाम् मतिः मन्दा भवति अकलुषात्मनाम् || ४-१-११५

115. puruSottama = oh, best one among men; Rama; samsthambha = control yourself; bhadram te = let safety betide you; maa shuchaH = do not, lament; iidR^ishaanaam = this kind of; a kaluSa atmaanaam = un, blemished, souls; mandaa matiH na bhavati = languorous, intellect, not, become.

"Oh, best one among men, please control yourself Rama, let safety betide you, do not lament, the intellect of your kind of unblemished souls does not become languorous... [4-1-115]

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स्मृत्वा वियोगजम् दुःखम् त्यज स्नेहम् प्रिये जने |
अति स्नेह परिष्वन्गात् वर्तिः अर्द्रा अपि दह्यते || ४-१-११६

116. viyogajam duHkham = by departure-caused, sadness; smR^itvaa = on recollecting; sneham priya jane tyaja = fondness, for the loved ones, forsake [to some extent]; ati sneha parishvangaat = too much, friendship, by the embrace of; vartiH aadraa api dahyate = wick, even, drenched [in water,] burns.

"Recollect the sadness caused by departure of loved ones, and it may please be forsaken for some extent, with the embrace of too much of friendship of the water-drenched wick with oil, even that water-drenched wick burns in the lamp... [4-1-116]

dur anvaya - wrong parsing of words in verse

The above is the wrong orientation of words used in above two verses. While the word-to-word translation of Ramayana is rare in print medium, the prose versions are giving meanings with such orientation, and they will be usually found in almost all printed books. The above suggests that Lakshmana is asking Rama to forget Seetha, which is meaningless. The following is said to be the reasonable orientation. Other words being same, the rest are:

priya jane= in dear, ones; sneham smR^itvaa= fondness, on remembering; iidR^ishaanaam= for this kind of; a + kaluSa atmaanaam= of un, blemished, souls; matiH mandaa na bhavati= intellect, languorous, will not, become; viyogajam duHkham tyaja= by separation, caused sadness, leave off.

"On remembering the fondness for dear ones, intellect of your kind of unblemished souls will not become languorous. Leave off the sadness caused by separation.

Such wrong orientations of words used in verses will be found in other verses also, because printed books are carrying them forward, and they need correction by some pundits who can kindly spare time and effort. The above correction is per courtesy of : Pt. Paturi Sitaramaanjaneyulu

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यदि गच्छति पतालम् ततो अभ्यऽधिकम् एव वा |
सर्वधा रावणः तात न भविष्यति राघव || ४-१-११७

117. oh, Raghava; raavanaH = Ravana, the demon; paataalam tataH adhikam eva vaa = netherworlds, from there, still deeper, even; yadi gacChati = if he, goes to; sarvadhaa na bhavishyati taavat = in any way, does not, live on, at all.

"If Ravana goes to the netherworlds, or still deeper worlds from there, oh my brother, still he will not live, Raghava... [4-1-117]

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प्रवृत्तिः लभ्यताम् तावत् तस्य पापस्य रक्षसः |
ततः हास्यति वा सीताम् निधनम् वा गमिष्यति || ४-१-११८

118. paapasya tasya rakshasaH = sinful one, that, demon's; pravR^ittiH labhyataam = emplacement, let it be obtained; tataH siithaam vaa haasyati = then, Seetha may be, left of by him; nidhanam vaa gamiSyati = doom, or, enter into.

"Let the emplacement of that sinning demon e obtained... and then he either cedes Seetha or enters into his own doom... [4-1-118]

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यदि याति दितेः गर्भम् रावणः सह सीताया |
तत्र अपि एनम् हनिष्यामि न चेत् दास्यति मैथिलीम् || ४-१-११९

119. raavana saha siithaayaa = Ravana, along with, Seetha; yadi yaati diteH garbham = if, enters, Diti's, womb; na chet daasyati maithiliim = if, give away, Maithili tatra api enam = there, even, him; han ishyaami = to slay, I wish to;

"Even if he enters the womb of Diti along with Seetha, and if he does not give away Seetha, even there I wish to slay him,...[4-1-119]

Please refer to Ch 45- 46 of Bala Kanda of details about Diti and someone entering her womb.

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स्वास्थ्यम् भद्रम् भजस्व आर्यः त्यजताम् कृपणा मतिः |
अर्थो हि नष्ट कार्यार्थैः न अयत्ने न अधिगम्यते || ४-१-१२०

120. aaryaH = oh, revered one; svaasyatham bhadram bhajasva = rejuvenate, secure, you may attain; tyajataam kR^ipaNaa matiH = cast-off, pathetic, mood; naSTa kaarya arthaiH = having lost, endeavours, purpose of; arthaH = its results; na a yatne = not, without, try; na adhigamyate = not, regain.

"May you rejuvenate and be secure, oh, revered one, cast-off your pathetic mood... result of purpose will be lost indeed, for the endeavourers without a try, thus nothing can be regained by them... [4-1-120]

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उत्साहो बलवान् आर्य नास्ति उत्साहात् परम् बलम् |
सः उत्साहस्य हि लोकेषु न किंचित् अपि दुर्लभम् || ४-१-१२१

121. aarya = oh, noble one; utsaahaH balavaan = vehemence, is a mighty one; utsaahaat param balam naasti = than vehemence, superior, might, is not there; saha utsaahsyaH hi = who, with vehemence, indeed; lokeSu kimchit api durlabham = in the world, slightest, even, impossible.

"Vehemence is might, oh, noble one, there is no superior might than vehemence and to him with vehemence there is no impossibility in the world,... even the slightest... [4-1-121]

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उत्साहवन्तः पुरुषा न अवसीदन्ति कर्मसु |
उत्साह मत्रम् आश्रित्य सीताम् प्रतिलप्स्याम् जनकीम् || ४-१-१२२

122. utsaahavantaH puruSaa = vehement, men; na avasiidanti karmasu = do not, regress, in deeds; utsaaha maatram aashritya = with vehemence, alone, taking hold of; prati lapsyaam = in turn, we regain; jaanakiim = Janaki.

"Vehement men do not regress in deeds, and taking hold of vehemence alone we regain Seetha...[4-1-122]

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त्यज्य काम वृत्तत्वम् शोकम् सम् न्यस्य पृष्टतः |
महात्मानम् कृतात्मानम् आत्मानम् न अवबुध्यसे || ४-१-१२३

123. tyajataam kaama vR^ittatvam = leave off, ardency, enclosure of; shokam sam nyasya pR^iSTataH = compassion, let go, behind [pushback]; maha aatmaanam = your great soul; kR^ita aatmaanam = your controlled, soul; na ava budhyase = not, able to know [yourself]

"You leave off this enclosure of ardency and pushback that compassion ... you are not able to know your great and controlled soul...with these thoughts of self-pity and fondness... [4-1-123]

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एवम् संबोधितः तेन शोकोपहत चेतनः |
त्य्ज्य शोकम् च मोहम् च रामो धैर्यम् उपागमत् || ४-१-१२४

124. shoka upahata chetanaH = by emotion, marred, conscience; Rama; evam sambodhitaH = thus, addressed [by Lakshmana]; tatra then; nyasya shoka cha moham cha = let off, pity, and, fondness, also; tataH dhairyam upaagamat = then, courage, he acquired.

Thus addressed by Lakshmana, then Rama whose conscience is marred by emotions, got rid of pity and fondness, and acquired courage, to perform the deed demanded of his incarnation. [4-1-124]

This reflects the saying of Bhagavad Gita gataasun agataasuumscha naanu shochanti panditaH... Lakshmana repeats the same words in Yuddha Kanda, the Book of War, chapter 83, verse 43, when Rama laments on receiving information that Indrajit, the son of Ravana killed Seetha. Here the word shoka ' stands for pity and moha stands for fondness, and god has these two basic attributes towards His creation. Thus the pity and fondness of god is now aimed at releasing the innate soul, namely Seetha, from the captivation.

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सोऽभ्य अतिक्रामत् अव्यग्रः ताम् अचिन्त्य पराक्रमः |
रामः पम्पाम् सु रुचिराम् रम्याम् पारिप्लव द्रुमान् || ४-१-१२५

125. a chintya paraakramaH = inestimable, valiant; Rama; a vyagraH = without, grieving; su ruchiraam = well, charming; ramya paariplava drumaan = with charm, flapped by winds, those trees are; taam pampaam = those, Pampa Lake [areas]; saH abhyatikraamat = he, strode forward.

He that inestimable valiant Rama strode forward those areas of charming Pampa Lake, with the charm of wind-flopped trees, getting rid of grief. [4-1-125]

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निरीक्षमाणः सहसा महात्मा सर्वम् वनम् निर्झर कन्दराम् च |
उद्विग्न चेताः सह लक्ष्मणेन विचार्य दुःखोपहतः प्रतस्थे || ४-१-१२६

126. niriikshyamaaNaH sahasaa mahaatmaaa = observing, quickly, the great one; sarvam vanam = all round, the forest; nirjhara kandaram cha = with brooks and caves, also; udvigna chetaaH = agonised at heart; saha Lakshmana vichaarya = with Lakshmana, reviewing; duHkha upahata = anguish, marred [anguished one]; pratashte = travelled on.

That great one Rama on observing all over quickly, all round the forest with its brooks and caves, and reviewing with Lakshmana, though agonised at heart that anguished one travelled on. [4-1-126]

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तम् मत्त मातङ्ग विलास गामी गच्छन्तम् अव्यग्र मनाः महात्मा |
स लक्ष्मणो राघवम् अप्रमत्तो ररक्ष धर्मेण बलेन च एव || ४-१-१२७

127. matta maatanga vilaasa gaamii = robust, with elephant, gait, he while striding; mahaatma = the great soul; iSTa ceSTaH saH LakshmanaH = agreeable, by his deeds [to Rama,] that, Lakshmana; gacChantaam = while [ Rama is] walking ahead; raaghavam = Raghava is; a vyagra manaa = not, despaired, at mind; apramattaH = vigilantly; dharmeNa balena cha eva = of virtue, and strength, too, thus; raraksha = protected.

While that great soul Rama is walking ahead, that great souled Lakshmana whose stride is also like that of an elephant, and whose deeds are agreeable to Rama, vigilantly protected Rama with an un-despaired mind and even by his virtue and strength. [4-1-127]

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तौ ऋष्यमूकस्य समीप चारी चरन् ददर्श अद्भुत दर्शनीयौ |
शाखा मृगाणाम् अधिपः तरस्वी वितत्रसे नैव चिचेष्ट चेष्टाम् || ४-१-१२८

128. R^iSyamuukasya sammepa chaarii = Rishyamuka mountain, nearby, one who moves about; tarasvii = mighty one; shaakhaa mR^igaaNaam adhipa = tree-branch, animals', chief [Sugreeva]; charan = meandering thereabout; adbhuta darshaniiyau = those who are amazing, in look; tau = at those two, Rama and Lakshmana; dadarsha = has seen; vitatrase = frightened; na eva cicheSTa ceSTaam = not, thus, gesticulated, any gestures - he is petrified.

He who is the chief of Vanara-s, who moves about Mt. Rishyamuka, while he is meandering thereabout he happened to see those two who are so amazing for a look, namely Rama and Lakshmana, by which he is so frightened that he is petrified. [4-1-128]

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स तौ महात्मा गज मन्द गामि शखा मृगः तत्र चिरन् चरन्तौ |
दृष्ट्वा विषादम् परमम् जगाम चिन्ता परीतो भय भार मग्नः || ४-१-१२९

129. tatra charan gaja manda gaami = there, moving about, elephant, gait like, in stride; mahaatmaa = great-soul [Sugreeva]; saH shaakhaa mR^igaH = he that [Sugreeva,] tree-branch, animal [Sugreeva]; charantau = those moving about [advancing]; tau = those two Rama, Lakshmana; dR^iSTva = having seen; chintaa pariitaH = worry, muffled with; bhaya bhaara magnaH = fear's, weight, engulfed; paramam viSaadam jagaama = profound, agony, derived.

On seeing those two Rama and Lakshmana who are advancing his way, he that great soul who is a tree-branch animal, and he who strides like an elephant, derived profound agony that muffled him in worry, and he is engulfed under the weight of his fear. [4-1-129]

Here Dharmaakuutam depicts this:

tatastu samastalokarakShaNakShamakShitipatilakShaNalakShitau karakamalagR^ihiitakanakamayasharaasanau parikupitaviShadharanikara- sadR^ishanishitasharabharabharitasharadhivilasitavipulabhujashikharau uddhR^iutapR^iuthulamaa~NsalamasR^iuNaayatabhujadaNDamaNDitau svaparigraheNajaTaavalkayorapispR^iuhaNiiyataasampadakau gandhasindhuramantharagaaminau apraakR^iutalaavaNyaavala~NkR^itaaraNyau apaa~NgashobhitaaraNyausamupasthitakaaruNyau sarvasattvasharaNau mahaaviiraagragaNyau sukumarau niriikShyaki~ncidapisa~ncalitahR^idayaH sa~ncitaikamatyaiH sahacaturbhiramaatyaiH vipulabalaavaliptabaliimukham R^ishyamuukam adhivasan samagraguNanidhaanam sugriivonaama vaanaralokaadhipo vilokayaamaasa

This is for the entrance of Rama and Lakshmana into the life of Sugreeva.

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तम् आश्रमम् पुण्य सुखम् शरण्यम् सदैव शाखा मृग सेवितान्तम् |
त्रस्ताः च दृष्ट्वा हरयोः अभिजग्मुः महौजसौ राघव लक्ष्मणौ तौ || ४-१-१३०

130. maha aujasau = highly, vigorous ones; tau = those two Raghava; Lakshmana; dR^iSTvaa = having seeing; trasthaaH = all [monkeys are] frightened; harayaoH = monkeys; puNya sukham = that is pious, consolatory; sharaNyam sadaiva = sheltering, always; shaakhaa mR^iga sevita antam = by tree-branch, animals, adored, inland; tam aashramam = towards that, hermitage; abhijagmuH = monkeys, fled.

On seeing those magnificent two, Rama and Lakshmana, the monkeys are frightened and fled towards the pious hermitage of Sage Matanga, which has an inland that is always adored by monkeys for it is consolatory and sheltering them. [4-1-130]

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This episode is a construct on the hymn at 1-4-3 inBrihadaaranyaka Upanishadic which is as below: --

savai na rame | tasmaat ekaakii na ramate | sa dvitiiyam aicchat |
sahaitaavaanaasayathaa strii pumaamsau sampariShvaktau |----tataH
patishca patniicaa bhavataam ---tatomanuShyo ajaayanta---BR^ihadaaraNyakopaniShad 1-4-3

God is said to take no delight in Himself alone, and He desired another.He was like an embraced male and female. Man and wife. Hence He felled His body to become two… and from thereon humans originated…Brihadaaranyaka Upanishat 1-4-3.

The lustful words of Rama are to be construed as pure pleasure forhaving Seetha at his side, as a longing to have His first creation with himself. This is for deifying Rama as incarnation of Vishnu. All the Ramayana-s or Purana-s which deal with the episode of Rama's reaction on seeing Pampa Lake have the same import. In Skanda Purana there is yet another instance stating that Rama gave curses to such lusty components of nature, for his lust is not satiated. It is as below: -

vaimukhyam gandha phalyaastu bhramaraan ashapat prabhuH |
kokaan nishiidhevishlesham pikam anya vivardhanam |
candanam sarpa nilayam vaayum sarpa ashanam tathaa|
jyostnaam ka¹a~Nka sa~ncchannaanaam shashaasa raghu nandana | skandapuraaNa

"Champaka flowers [Hindi: Mogra; Telugu : Sampega; Botanical : Michelia champaka] are not to be touched by Honeybees, chakravaaka, [water-birds, ruddy geese, know for their inseparable swimming] be separated in midnight, Kokila birds [Blackcuckoos] be grownup in other's nests [i.e., in crow's nest] Sandalwood trees become shelters to snakes, the breeze [that is cool and incited Rama's thoughts about Seetha,]shall become food of snakes… thus cursed Rama, in his anguish about his separation from Seetha…" Skanda Purana.


इति वाल्मीकि रामायणे आदि काव्ये किष्किन्ध काण्डे प्रथमः सर्गः

Thus, this is the 1st chapter in Kishkindha Kanda of Valmiki Ramayana the First Epic poem of India.

Verse Locator for Book IV : Kishkindha Kanda - The Empire of Holy Monkeys : Chapter 1

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