Book IV : Kishkindha Kanda - The Empire of Holy Monkeys

Chapter [Sarga] 30
Verses converted to UTF-8, Nov 09


Rama's exaltation of sharad R^itu post-rainy or pre-autumnal season is the theme here. This season, which will be conducive to lovers, is painful to Rama in the absence of Seetha. This agony is compounding and turning into his ire, since Sugreeva's efforts in searching for Seetha are neither seen nor heard. Hence, Rama sends Lakshmana as an envoy to Kishkindha to decide whether Sugreeva's support is there or liquefied in the spree of his drinking and merrymaking.

A word about this chapter. Readers acquainted with critical version of Ramayana may find some 35 verses in this chapter that are unknown to them. They occur in all the other traditional versions and they carry the blemish of interpolation. They are inescapable in traditional versions, as age-old commentators have commented on them at length.

Verse Locator

गुहाम् प्रविष्टे सुग्रीवे विमुक्ते गगने घनैः |
वर्ष रात्रे स्थितो रामः काम शोक अभिपीडितः || ४-३०-१
पाण्डुरम् गगनम् दृष्ट्वा विमलम् चन्द्र मण्डलम् |
शारदीम् रजनीम् चैव दृष्ट्वा ज्योत्स्न अनुलेपनाम् || ४-३०-२
काम वृत्तम् च सुग्रीवम् नष्टाम् च जनक आत्मजाम् |
दृष्ट्वा कालम् अतीतम् च मुमोह परम आतुरः || ४-३०-३

1. sugriive guhaam praviSTe = Sugreeva, into cave, while entering; gagane ghanaiH vimukte = sky, of clouds, while releasing - while rains are ceasing; varSa raatre = in rainy, nights; kaama shoka abhi piiDitaH = of yearning, by misery, verily, distressed; sthitaH = staying - who spent rainy nights during his stay; raamaH = Rama; paaNDuram gaganam = whitish - silvern, sky is; vimalam candra maNDalam = with immaculate, moon's, sphere; dR^iSTvaa = on seeing; jyotsna anulepanaam = with moonbeams, enamelled; shaaradiim rajaniim caiva = autumnal, nights, also, thus; dR^iSTvaa = on observing; kaama vR^ittam sugriivam ca = in lust, engrossed, of Sugreeva, also; and; naSTaam janaka aatmajaam ca = lost - hopeless, of Janaka's, daughter - of Seetha, also; atiitam kaalam ca = time, rolled by, furthermore; dR^iSTvaa = on observing; parama aaturaH = with highly, impatience; mumoha ca = swooned, even.

On Sugreeva's entering the cave-like Kishkindha, Rama who spent rainy nights on that mountain with much distress owing to the misery of yearning for Seetha, has seen the immaculate sphere of moon on silvern sky freed by ceasing rains, and even autumnal nights that are enamelled with moonshine, and thus he observed that Seetha is lost hopelessly, engrossed in lust Sugreeva is lost to world intractably, and furthermore time too is being lost irretrievably, and thus he became highly impatient and even swooned. [4-30-1, 2, 3]

Verse Locator

स तु संज्ञाम् उपागम्य मुहूर्तात् मतिमान् नृपः |
मनः स्थाम् अपि वैदेहीम् चिंतयामास राघवः || ४-३०-४

4. matimaan = a thoughtful one; nR^ipaH = the king; saH raaghavaH = he, that Raghava; muhuurtaat samj~naam upaagamya = in a moment, consciousness, getting; manaH sthaam api vaidehiim = in heart, abiding, though, of Vaidehi; cintayaamaasa = started to think.

But on getting consciousness in a moment, that thoughtful king Raghava started to think of Vaidehi who is abiding in his heart, though not at his side. [4-30-4]

Verse Locator

दृष्ट्वा च विमलम् व्योम गत विद्युत् बलाहकम् |
सारस आरव संघुष्टम् विललाप आर्तया गिरा || ४-३०-५

5. gata vidyut balaahakam = one which is - set free, of electric-discharges [lightning,] dark-clouds; saarasa aarava samghuSTam = with Saarasa birds, shrieks, [now] vibrant with; vimalam ca = spotless, also; vyoma dR^iSTvaa = sky, on seeing; aartayaa giraa vilalaapa = with woeful, words, bemoaned.

On seeing the sky to be spic and span when set free of black-clouds and lightning, and even vibrant with the shrieks of Saarasa birds, Rama bemoaned in woeful words. [4-30-5]

Verse Locator

आसीनः पर्वतस्य अग्रे हेम धातु विभूषिते |
शारदम् गगनम् दृष्ट्वा जगाम मनसा प्रियाम् || ४-३०-६

6. parvatasya = of mountain; hema dhaatu vibhuuSite = gold, [and other] ores, embellished with; agre = on summit; aasiinaH = while sitting; raama shaaradam gaganam dR^iSTvaa = autumn, skyscape, on beholding; manasaa priyaam = conceptually, to his ladylove; jagaama = journeyed - on the rove [and he soliloquised his thoughts in this way.]

Rama's concepts are on the rove towards his ladylove when he beheld the skyscape of autumn while sitting on the summit of a mountain that is embellished with gold and other ores, and he soliloquised his thoughts in this way. [4-30-6]

Verse Locator

सारस आरव संनादैः सारस आरव नादिनी |
या आश्रमे रमते बाला सा अद्य मे रमते कथम् || ४-३०-७

7. saarasa aarava naadinii = Saarasa bird-like, callings, sounding - alike, Seetha; yaa baalaa = which, young one - Seetha; aashrame = in hermitage - of ours; me = to me - with me; saarasa aarava sannaadaiH = Saarasa birds, callings, with the resonance of; ramate = used to take delight; saa = she - Seetha; adya katham ramate = now, how, she can delight herself without me.

"Young Seetha with a voice that is a soundalike to the callings of Saarasa birds used to take delight in these resonant calls of Saarasa birds when we were together in hermitage, but how she might be taking delight in these chirrups now without me. [4-30-7]

When we were in hermitage, on listening the callings of Saarasa birds, Seetha used to call me to observe these birds in a voice that soundalike the Saarasa birds, and we were delighted to listen the callings of those birds together. But now staying among demons how can she take delight in seeing these seasonal birds or call me for help with such a voice, because her voice is lost in the blare of bawling demons.

Verse Locator

पुष्पिताम् च आसनान् दृष्ट्वा कांचनान् इव निर्मलान् |
कथम् सा रमते बाला पश्यंती माम् अपश्यती || ४-३०-८

8. puSpitaam kaancanaan iva = flowered, gold, as if like; nirmalaan = flawless; aasanaan = Asana trees [Terminalia alata tomentosa, Bandhuuka trees]; dR^iSTvaa = on seeing; pashyantii = for me - while seeing, checking up for me; maam a pashyatii = me, not, seeing - not finding me; saa baalaa = she, that dame; katham ramate = how, can she be happy.

"On seeing the flawless Asana trees flowered as if with golden flowers, she checks up for my availability thereabout, but now finding me nowhere near her, how can she be happy. [4-30-8]

On seeing these flowers Seetha used to go near the trees to check their beauty, and even used to check up for my availability to show their beauty to me. Now if she sees these seasonal flowers in that place where she is captivated, at least for a moment, but if she does no find me there, she looses her heart for these flowers.

Verse Locator

या पुरा कलहंसानाम् स्वरेण कल भाषिणी |
बुध्यते चारु सर्वांगी सा अद्य मे रमते कथम् || ४-३०-९

9. caaru sarva angii = enchanting, by all, her limbs; kala bhaaSiNii = clucky, voiced; yaa = which Seetha; puraa = earlier; kala hamsaanaam = of clucking-swans; svareNa [kalena] = melodious callings; [me] budhyate = [me] knowing myself, [waking up]; me saa = my, she - she who is mine; adya katham ramate = now, how, she takes delight.

"She who is enchanting to me by her well-proportioned limbs that clucky-voiced Seetha earlier used to wake me up in tune with the melodious callings of clucking-swans, but how that ladylove of mine might be amusing herself now. [4-30-9]

The word budhyate means 'waking up' apart from 'knowing' etc. Thus, 'earlier, when I was with Seetha I used to know myself as the 'Being' as and when her divine and swanlike voice used to address me, which voice is incidentally equals the hymn Gayatri, and which I used to hear continuously. But now without her, Shri, Goddess Lakshmi, I am presently not able to know myself.'

'Earlier when in hermitage Seetha used to wake me up with her clucky-voice synchronising with the clucking of swans. On my awakening, I used to see her auspicious face and all-charming physique, by that I daily used to have a waking up protocol, suprabhaata seva, now how she can do it or how I can enjoy her sight every morning.

Verse Locator

निःस्वनम् चक्रवाकानाम् निशम्य सहचारिणाम् |
पुण्डरीकविशालाक्षी कथम् एषा भविष्यति || ४-३०-१०

10. puNDariika vishaala akSii = white-lotus like, broad, eyed one; eSaa = this -Seetha; saha caariNaam cakravaakaanaam = [that always] together - in couples, moving, of Cakravaka birds; niH svanam nishamya = out, cry - sharp notes, on listening; katham bhaviSyati = how, she, will be - what becomes of her.

"On hearing the sharp notes of Cakravaka birds that always move together in couples, what will become of this white-lotus-like broad-eyed Seetha, since she is not together with me. [4-30-10]

Verse Locator

सरांसि सरितो वापीः काननानि वनानि च |
ताम् विना मृगशावाक्षीम् चरन् न अद्य सुखम् लभे || ४-३०-११

11. saraamsi saritaH vaapiiH = lakes, rivers, tanks - which are naturally enjoyable; kaananaani vanaani ca = forests, woodlands, also; caran = while wandering; adya = now; taam mR^igashaavaakSiim vinaa = her, deer-eyed lady, without; sukham na labhe = joy, not, - I am - able to get.

"I am not able to enjoy myself without that deer-eyed lady though wandering around enjoyable lakes, rivers, tanks, forests and woodlands, whose thirst is drenched by rainwater and my thirsting for her is not. [4-30-11]

Verse Locator

अपि ताम् मत् वियोगात् च सौकुमार्यात् च भामिनीम् |
सुदूरम् पीडयेत् कामः शरत् गुण निरंतरः || ४-३०-१२

12. sharat guNa nir antaraH = autumnal, features, without, gap - with plethora of provocative features of autumn; kaamaH = Love-god; saukumaaryaat = by her frailty; mat viyogaat ca = by my, separation, also; taam bhaaminiim = her, that lady; su duuram = very, long - prolongedly; piiDayet api = will agonise, is it - won't he.

"The Love-god with a plethora of provocative autumnal features will be prolongedly agonising her, because she is separated from me, and because her ladyship is a frailty - won't he?" Thus Rama worried for Seetha. [4-30-12]

'Will the Love-god Manmatha, with all his paraphernalia of licentious autumnal aspects, like even-climate, even-circumstance and even-desire, will he leave Seetha? Even on knowing fully well that she is separated from me besides being a delicate person, will that Love-god leave her alone? No, He will not... for, merciless is that Manmatha, God of Love, and He may agonise Seetha till death, for she is an unyielding woman to otherspati vrata , nor I am at her side.'

Verse Locator

एवम् आदि नरश्रेष्ठो विललाप नृपात्मजः |
विहंग इव सारंगः सलिलम् त्रिदशेश्वरात् || ४-३०-१३

13. nara shreSThaH = among men, the best one; nR^ipa aatmajaH = king's, son - Rama; tridasha iishvaraat = divinities, from the king of - from Indra; salilam = for water, requiring water; saarangaH = Caataka, Saaranga, Rain-cuckoo; vihanga iva = bird, as with; evam aadi = so on, so forth; vilalaapa = keened over.

So on and so forth that best one among men and the son of a king keened over, like a Rain-cuckoo which will be keen on Indra, the king of divinities, for rainy-water. [4-30-13]

The Caataka or Saaranga birds are said to be a sort of bird-flock which thrive on rain water alone, but not on water in rivers or brooks. They fly up to skies to swill the water directly from clouds granted by Indra. So also Rama is desirous of Seetha alone for his theory is 'one-man-one-wife.' Thereby he does not eye other women. In epical aesthetics this is called anukuula naayaka lakshaNa 'hero in harmony.'

Verse Locator

ततः चंचूर्य रम्येषु फलार्थी गिरि सानुषु |
ददर्श पर्युपावृत्तो लक्ष्मीवान् लक्ष्मणो अग्रजम् || ४-३०-१४

14. tataH = then; phala arthii = fruits, seeker - one gone in search of; ramyeSu giri saanuSu = pleasant, on mountain, terraces; cancuurya = after meandering; paryupaavR^ittaH [pari upa aa vaR^ittaH] = who returned; lakSmiivaan lakSmaNaH = propitious, Lakshmana; agrajam dadarsha = at his elder brother, has seen.

Meandering on the pleasant mountain-terraces in search of fruits brilliant Lakshmana returned and has seen his elder brother Rama. [4-30-14]

Verse Locator

स चिन्तया दुस्सहया परीतम्
विसंज्ञम् एकम् विजने मनस्वी |
भ्रातुर् विषादात् त्वरितो अति दीनः
समीक्ष्य सौमित्रिः उवाच रामम् || ४-३०-१५

15. manasvii = noble-hearted one; saH saumitriH = he, that Saumitri; vi jane = without, people - in lonely place; ekam = he who is - lone one; duH sahayaa = un, bearable; cintayaa pariitam = sadness, beset with; vi sanj~nam = without, awareness - with a vacuous posture; samiikSya = on observing - Rama; bhraatuH viSaadaat = owing to brother's, sadness; ati diinaH = on becoming - very, miserable Lakshmana; tvaritaH raamam uvaaca = fretfully, to Rama, spoke.

Noble-hearted Saumitri, on observing lone Rama in a lonely place, who is beset with unbearable sadness and whose posture is vacuous, became very miserable for the sad condition of his brother, and spoke to Rama fretfully. [4-30-15]

Verse Locator

किम् आर्य कामस्य वशम् गतेन
किम् आत्म पौरुष्य पराभवेन |
अयम् ह्रिया संह्रियते समाधिः
किम् अत्र योगेन निवर्तितेन || ४-३०-१६

16. aarya = oh, noble one; kaamasya vasham gatena = of passion, fetters, get into; kim prayojanam = what, is the use; aatma pauruSya paraabhavena = soul's, bold-temper, by trouncing; kim = what - is the use and; hriyaa = remorseful - with sadness; ayam samaadhiH = this, self-concentration - self-assurance; sam hriyate = verily, stealing - arrogated; atra nivartitena yogena = now, with reverted, association - with the aim, by retracing your steps from the goal]; kim = what - purpose can be achieved.

"Oh, noble one, what is the use in getting into fetters of passion, what for soul's bold-temper is being trounced, this remorseful sadness is arrogating self-assurance, and what purpose can be achieved now in retracing steps from the goal. [4-30-16]

'The time when one has to keep up his bold-temper, without subjugation to passional temperance has arrived now, namely the autumn, and now loosing heart to shameful sadness, and loosing manly boldness to seasonal passions... what purpose can be achieved by it?' Maheshvara Tiirtha.

Verse Locator

क्रियाभियोगम् मनसः प्रसादम्
समाधि योग अनुगतम् च कालम् |
सहाय सामर्थ्यम् अदीन सत्त्वः
स्व कर्म हेतुम् च कुरुष्व तात ४-३०-१७

17. taata = oh, dear sir; a diina sattvaH = becoming un, deterred, in spirit; kriya abhiyogam [kuruSva] = in mission, you engage in; manasaH prasaadam [kuruSva] = mind's, good disposition [make happen]; samaadhi yoga anugatam = concentration [steadfastness,] yogic thinking [ideation,] following [in accordance with,] also; kaalam ca = time [kuruSva = you have to control]; sahaaya saamarthyam [kuruSva] = helpmate's, capabilities [kuruSva = be gathered by you]; hetum = basis [for achieving results]; sva karma ca = your own, endeavour [daily rituals to gods,] also; hetum = as means; kuruSva = you perform.

"Oh, dear sir, engage yourself in your mission with an undeterred spirit and with a good disposition of mind, and bring time under control with steadfastness and ideation, and the capabilities of your helpmates, say Sugreeva and others be gathered, and the basis for your achievements, say daily rituals towards gods, be performed by you as your means. [4-30-17]

Verse Locator

न जानकी मानव वंश नाथ
त्वया सनाथा सुलभा परेण |
न च अग्नि चूडाम् ज्वलिताम् उपेत्य
न दह्यते वीर वरार्ह कश्चित् || ४-३०-१८

18. maanava vamsha naatha = oh, human, kindred's, lord of; tvayaa sa naathaa jaanakii = you, having, as husband, Janaki; pareNa su labhaa = by others, easily, attainable; na = she is not; viira = oh, brave one; vara arha = oh, for high honour, eligible one - oh, Rama; jvalitaam agni cuuDaam = flaring, fire's, tongue; upetya = on nearing; kashcit = anyone; na dahyate = will not, bur; iti [cet na] = thus, if said, no - not so.

"Oh, the lord of human kindred, with you as her husband Janaki is not an easily attainable one for others, oh, highly honourable one, if it is said that none will be burnt if he nears the tongues of flaming fire, oh, brave one, it is not so, for Janaki is a flaming fire, and anyone nearing her in ill-will will be burnt to ashes like a grass-hopper." Thus Lakshmana said to Rama. [4-30-18]

Verse Locator

सलक्षणम् लक्ष्मणम् अप्रधृष्यम्
स्वभावजम् वाक्यम् उवाच रामः |
हितम् च पथ्यम् च नय प्रसक्तम्
ससाम धर्मार्थ समाहितम् च || ४-३०-१९

19. sa lakSaNam = which words are - seemly; a pradhR^iSyam = un, deniable; svabhaava jam = natural [of Lakshmana's nature,] emerged from; hitam ca pathyam ca = expedient, also, tasteful, also; naya prasaktam = moral, abiding; sa saama = which are - with, friendliness; dharma artha samaahitam ca = righteousness, meaningfulness, abounding in, also; raamaH = Rama; lakSmaNam = to Lakshmana; vaakyam = words; uvaaca = spoke;


raamaH = Rama; sa lakSaNam = he who is with, seemliness - Lakshmana; a pradhR^iSyam = un, deniable one; lakSmaNam = to Lakshmana; svabhaava jam = natural [of Rama's words,] emerged; hitam ca pathyam ca = expedient, also, tasteful, also; naya prasaktam = moral, abiding; sa saama = which are - with, friendliness; dharma artha samaahitam ca = righteousness, meaningfulness, abounding in, also; vaakyam = words; uvaaca = spoke;

Lakshmana with his seemliness spoke those undeniable and expedient words that emerged from his very nature, which are tasteful, morally abiding, and further abounding with friendliness, righteousness, and meaningfulness, and on listening such words Rama spoke to Lakshmana.


Rama spoke to seemly and undeniable Lakshmana with words that emerged from his very nature, which are tasteful, morally abiding, and further abounding with friendliness, righteousness, and meaningfulness.[4-30-19]

Verse Locator

निस्संशयम् कार्यम् अवेक्षितव्यम्
क्रिया विशेषो अपि अनुवर्तितव्यः |
न तु प्रवृद्धस्य दुरासदस्य
कुमार वीर्यस्य फलम् च चिन्त्यम् || ४-३०-२०

20. kumaara = oh, boy; niH samshayam = without, doubt; kaaryam avekSitavyam = accomplishment [of task,] is to be kept in view; kriyaa visheSaH api anu vartitavyaH = task's, factors, even, in tow, are to be followed; pra vR^iddhasya = well, intensified - unwieldy; dur aasadasya = un, attainable; viiryasya [kaaryasya] = of formidability] of task; phalam ca = fruit, about; cintyam = is to be thought over; na nu = isn't it.

"Doubtless accomplishment of the task is to be held in view, even oh, boy, the factors that contribute to its accomplishment, like enthusiasm, helpmates etc., are to be followed through, and not only these aspects but we also have to observe the fruition of task when that task is becoming unwieldy, unattainable and formidable, along with the lapse of time and lapsing of help." Thus Rama said to Lakshmana. [4-30-20]

Verse Locator

अथ पद्म पलाश अक्षीम् मैथिलीम् अनुचिन्तयन् |
उवाच लक्ष्मणम् रामो मुखेन परिशुष्यता || ४-३०-२१

21. atha = thereafter; raamaH = Rama; padma palaasha akSiim = lotus, petal, eyed one; maithiliim anucintayan = of Maithili, thinking about; pari shuSyataa mukhena = with verily, dried-up, face; lakSmaNam uvaaca = to Lakshmana, spoke.

On thinking about the fruit of his mammoth task, namely that lotus-petal-eyed Maithili, thereafter Rama spoke to Lakshmana with a dried-up face. [4-30-21]

Verse Locator

तर्पयित्वा सहस्राक्षः सलिलेन वसुंधराम् |
निर्वर्तयित्वा सस्यानि कृत कर्मा व्यवस्थितः || ४-३०-२२

22. sahasra akSaH = thousand, eyed Indra; salilena vasundharaam tarpayitvaa = with waters, mother earth, on oblating - satisfying; sasyaani nirvartayitvaa = crops, having accomplished; kR^ita karmaa vyavasthitaH = on accomplishing, his task, is complacent.

"On satisfying mother earth with rainwater and on effectuating the crops on earth, the Thousand-eyed Indra is complacent as his task is effectuated, whereas my task is yet to take off. [4-30-22]

Here a selfless philanthropist who accords benefits on his own without any petition or prayer is suggested in referring to Indra and rains, and Rama has not yet done such act in respect of Seetha.

Verse Locator

दीर्घ गंभीर निर्घोषाः शैल द्रुम पुरोगमाः |
विसृज्य सलिलम् मेघाः परिश्रांता नृप आत्मज || ४-३०-२३

23. nR^ipa aatmaja = oh, king's, son; diirgha gambhiira nirghoSaaH = protracted, profound, with peals; shaila druma puraH gamaaH = mountains, trees, overhead, going; meghaaH salilam visR^ijya = clouds, waters, on let loosing; pari shraantaa = retired.

"Clouds roving on the tops of mountains and trees with their protracted and profound peals have let the water loose and they are now retired, oh, prince, but tireless are rumbles and grumbles in my heart, thus I cannot retire. [4-30-23]

Verse Locator

नील उत्पल दल श्यामः श्यामी कृत्वा दिशो दश |
विमदा इव मातंगाः शान्त वेगाः पयो धराः || ४-३०-२४

24. niila utpala dala shyaamaH = blue, lotus, petal-like, blue-blackish; payaH dharaaH = water, carriers - clouds; dasha dishaH = ten, quarters; shyaamii kR^itvaa = black, on making - directions; vi madaa maatangaaH iva = without, rut, elephants, as with; shaanta vegaaH = quietened, in nimbleness.

"On blackening ten quarters of earth blue-black clouds that looked like petals of blue-lotuses are now quietened in their nimbleness like rut-less elephants. [4-30-24]

There are eight elephants carrying the universe from its eight corners aSTa diggaja-s . They and the elephantine-clouds that give waters, both kinds of elephants are responsible for world's sustenance, but they now are nonchalant on performing their duties, along with their administrator Indra. Rama is not able to do his duty due to slackness of Sugreeva, and thus he is questioning himself whether his mission / incarnation is going to be futile or worthwhile.

Verse Locator

जल गर्भा महा वेगाः कुटज अर्जुन गंधिनः |
चरित्वा विरताः सौम्य वृष्टि वाताः समुद्यताः || ४-३०-२५

25. saumya = oh, gentle one; jala garbhaa mahaa vegaaH [meghaaH] = water, in womb, high, speeded [clouds]; kuTaja arjuna gandhinaH = Kutaja, Arjuna flowers, fragranced; samudyataaH = which swooped; vR^iSTi vaataaH = rain's, with winds; caritvaa vi rataaH = on wafting, without, activity - paused.

"Now pausing are the high-speeded rainy-winds, which once speedily swooped with water in their wombs, and wafted the fragrance of Kutaja and Arjuna flowers. [4-30-25]

Verse Locator

घनानाम् वारणानाम् च मयूराणाम् च लक्ष्मण |
नादः प्रस्रवणानाम् च प्रशान्तः सहसा अनघ || ४-३०-२६

26. anagha = oh, merited one; lakSmaNa = Lakshmana; ghanaanaam vaaraNaanaam ca = of clouds, of elephants, also; mayuuraaNaam ca = of peacocks, also; prasravaNaanaam ca = of freshets, also; naadaH = rales; sahasaa prashaantaH = suddenly, quietened.

"The rales of clouds, elephants, peacocks, and oh, merited Lakshmana, of the freshets too, are suddenly quietened. [4-30-26]

Verse Locator

अभिवृष्टा महा मेघैः निर्मलाः चित्र सानवः |
अनुलिप्ता इव आभान्ति गिरयः चन्द्र रश्मिभिः || ४-३०-२७

27. mahaa meghaiH abhivR^iSTaa = by colossal, clouds, well, rain-scoured; nirmalaaH citra saanavaH = without grime, amusing, having terraces; girayaH = mountains; candra rashmibhiH = , with moon, beams; anuliptaa iva aabhaanti = enamelled, as though, shining forth.

"Scoured well by rains from colossal clouds those amusing mountain terraces are grime-less and they shine forth as though enamelled with the moonbeams. [4-30-27]

Verse Locator

शाखासु सप्त च्छद पादपानाम्
प्रभासु तार अर्क निशा कराणाम् |
लीलासु चैव उत्तम वारणानाम्
श्रियम् विभज्य अद्य शरत् प्रवृत्ता || ४-३०-२८

28. adya = presently; sharat = autumn; sapta cChada paadapaanaam shaakhaasu = seven, covered [by leaves,] of plants [the banana plants covered by their seven leaves] on branches; taara arka nishaa karaaNaam prabhaasu = of stars, sun, night, maker [moon,] in their brilliance; uttama vaaraNaanaam liilaasu caiva = of best, elephants, frolicking, also thus; shriyam vibhajya pravR^ittaa = charm, on dividing, has shown itself.

"Presently autumn has shown itself dividing its charm on the branches of seven-leaved banana plants, on the stars, sun and moon, and also on those best elephants that are rollicking. [4-30-28]

The seven-leaved banana plants are bearing whitish-buds, the luminosity of sun, moon and stars is blanched and because such a congenial atmosphere of autumn is prevailing the elephants are frolicking, since no other season can make those pachyderms joyous.

Verse Locator

संप्रति अनेक आश्रय चित्र शोभा
लक्ष्मीः शरत् काल गुण उपपन्ना |
सूर्य अग्र हस्त प्रतिबोधितेषु
पद्माकरेषु अभ्यधिकम् विभाति || ४-३०-२९

29. samprati = now; aneka aashraya citra shobhaa = many, resorting to, which is fascinating, which is glistening; sharat kaala guNa upapannaa = autumnal, season's, merits of, derived from; lakshmiiH = such - grandeur; suurya agra hasta prati bodhiteSu = sun's, first [dawning,] by hands [by rays,] in turn, made known [awakened, flourished]; padma aakareSu = lotuses', mines of [lotus-lakes]; abhyadhikam vibhaati = very much [splendidly,] shining forth.

"Fascinatingly glistening grandeur of autumn that is derived from the merits of the season and that resorts to many objects of the season, is now splendidly shining in the lotus lakes that are flourished by the rays of dawning sun. [4-30-29]

Those that are graced by the Almighty, their splendidly glistening visages are indicated by the gleaming lotuses. In autumn the sun does not scorch, thus by his first rays awakened are the pink, blue, and white lotuses, and there are many such lotus-lakes, which also gleam with their gleaming lotuses, and thus 'Lakshmi' - the affluence, splendour, grandeur, of nature is glorified through the sage-like lotuses' bloom.

Verse Locator

सप्त च्छदानाम् कुसुमोप गंधी
षट् पाद वृन्दैः अनुगीयमानः |
मत्त द्विपानाम् पवन अनुसारी
दर्पम् विनेष्यन् अधिकम् विभाति || ४-३०-३०

30. SaT paada vR^indaiH = six, footed ones [hexapods, honeybees,] by swarms of; anu giiyamaanaH = in accompaniment, singing; pavana anu saarii = breeze, in tow, following [unceasingly]; sapta cChadaanaam kusuma upaH gandhii = seven, leaves-covered [banana plants,] flower's, covered, fragrance [is wafted by the breeze]; matta dvipaanaam darpam = of rutted, elephants, pride of rut; vi neSyan = verily, to remove; adhikam vibhaati = highly, glistening.

"The breeze is wafting the fragrance of flowers of seven-leaved banana plants, and the swarms of honeybees that are singing in accompaniment to the rustle of breeze are tagging along that breeze for its fragrance, and because that breeze is breezing unceasingly, that alone is fetching the pride of rut for the already rutted elephants, and thus this autumnal season is highly glistening. [4-30-30]

Verse Locator

अभ्यागतैः चारु विशाल पक्षैः
सरः प्रियैः पद्म रजो अवकीर्णैः |
महा नदीनाम् पुलिन उपयातैः
क्रीडन्ति हंसाः सह चक्रवाकैः || ४-३०-३१

31. hamsaaH = swans; abhi aagataiH = that have come near; caaru vishaala pakshaiH = with cute, broad, wings; saraH priyaiH = lakes, fond of; padma rajaH avakiirNaiH = lotus, pollen, dust, overspread; mahaa nadiinaam = in vast, river's; pulina upa yaataiH = sand-dunes, nearby, coming; cakravaakaiH saha kriiDanti = Cakravaka birds, along with, they are larking.

"Broad and cute winged Cakravaka birds that are fond of lakes and that have pollen of lotuses overspread on them have come to the sand-dunes of vast rivers, and with them that have come nigh the swans are larking. [4-30-31]

Swans and Cakravaka birds are said to be born enemies. But due to autumnal effect, they have stopped their infighting and came together on the sand dunes, for their mating games.

Verse Locator

मद प्रगल्भेषु च वारिणेषु
गवाम् समूहेषु च दर्पितेषु |
प्रसन्न तोयासु च निम्न गासु
विभाति लक्ष्मीः बहुधा विभक्ता || ४-३०-३२

32. mada pragalbheSu vaariNeSu = by rut, overbearing, in elephants; darpiteSu gavaam samuuheSu = haughty ones, in bulls, herds of; prasanna toyaasu ca nimna gaasu = in limpid, waters, also, to slope, going - that are slopping down; bahudhaa vibhaktaa = variously, divided; lakshmiiH = glory - of autumn; vibhaati = verily, shining forth.

"Divided variously the autumnal glory is shining forth among the overbearingly ruttish elephants that are trumpeting, among the herds of haughty bulls bellowing, and among the limpid waters that are murmuringly slopping down. [4-30-32]

Verse Locator

नभः समीक्ष्या अंबु धरैः विमुक्तम्
विमुक्त बर्ह आभरणा वनेषु |
प्रियासु अरक्ता विनिवृत्त शोभा
गत उत्सवा ध्यान परा मयूराः || ४-३०-३३

33. vaneSu = in forests; mayuuraaH = peacocks; ambu dharaiH = water, carriers - - clouds; vi muktam = verily, set free of; nabhaH sam iikshyaa = at sky, well, exploring; vi mukta barha aabharaNaa = verily, setting free, peacocks, of their ornaments - colourful tails; priyaasu = in their dear ones - peahens; a raktaa = un, interested; vinivR^itta [vi ni vR^itta] = [verily, back, turning back] divested of; shobhaa = their splendour; gata utsavaa = divested, with festivity; dhyaana paraa = in musing, abiding in.

"Exploring the sky well which is now set free by the clouds, the peacocks are setting their ornamental plumaged-tails free, and they are even divested of their dear peahens as they are uninterested in them, and thus divested of their festivity those peacocks are abiding in their muse. [4-30-33]

Rama's musing is similar to that of the peacocks. Not that he is disinterested in Seetha, but his present priority is to conquer Ravana, for which Ravana is to be located first. Further, gone is the festivity to Rama, which chanced while befriending Sugreeva, who then was in a similar state, but now completely transformed into a frivolous monkey. Thus, Rama is pondering over the possibility of locating and conquering Ravana by himself, should Sugreeva refuse the pact.

Verse Locator

मनोज्ञ गन्धैः प्रियकैः अनल्पैः
पुष्प अति भार अवनत अग्र शाखैः |
सुवर्ण गौरैः नयन अभिरामैः
उद्योतितान् इव वन अन्तराणि || ४-३०-३४

34. manoj~na gandhaiH = pleasingly, fragrant; puSpa ati bhaara ava nata agra shaakhaiH = flowers, much, weighty, down, bent [sagged down,] apices, of boughs; suvarNa gauraiH = golden, yellow in hue; nayana abhiraamaiH = for eyes, delightful ones; an alpaiH = not, less [umpteen]; priyakaiH = with Priyaka flowers of Asana trees; vana antaraaNi = forests, interiors; udyotitaan iva = are illuminated, as though.

"Umpteen are those Priyaka trees with their pleasingly fragrant flowers, the apices of the boughs of those trees are sagging down by their much weighty flowers-bunches, and eye-delighting is the golden-yellow hue of those flowers, and with them the interiors of these forests look as though illuminated, lit with golden lamps. [4-30-34]

Verse Locator

प्रिय अन्वितानाम् नलिनी प्रियाणाम्
वन प्रियाणाम् कुसुम उद्धतानाम् |
मद उत्कटानाम् मद लालसानाम्
गज उत्तमानम् गतयो अद्य मन्दाः || ४-३०-३५

35. adya = now; priya anvitaanaam = dear ones, that are along with; nalinii priyaaNaam = lotus-lakes, fond of; vana priyaaNaam = forests, fond of; kusuma uddhataanaam = by flowers, up-heaved - excited on smelling fragrance of flowers; mada laalasaanaam = in rut, indulgent; mada utkaTaanaam = ruttish lather, flowing on temples; gaja uttamaanam = elephants, best ones; gatayaH mandaaH = strides, slackened.

"On scenting the fragrance of the seven-leaved banana plants, the ruttish lather of those best elephants that have a fond for forests and lotus-lakes has started to flow on their temples, thus they are indulgent in rut and their strides are slackening while they are moving along with their beloved female elephants. [4-30-35]

Verse Locator

व्यक्तम् नभः शस्त्र विधौत वर्णम्
कृश प्रवाहानि नदी जलानि |
कह्लार शिताः पवनाः प्रवान्ति
तमो विमुक्ताः च दिशः प्रकाशाः || ४-३०-३६

36. vyaktam [vybhram = clear of clouds] = clear; nabhaH = sky is; shastra vi dhauta varNam = weapon, well-scoured - whetted, in tinge; nadii jalaani = river, waters; kR^isha pravaahaani = with thinned, flows; kahlaara shitaaH pavanaaH = red-lotuses, chilly, breezes are; pravaanti = well-wafting; tamaH vi muktaaH dishaH prakaashaaH ca = from darkness, well, released, directions, are bright.

"The sky is clear as with the tinge of just whetted weapon, lessened are the flows of river-waters, breeze is chilly while wafting the chillness of red-lotuses, and all the directions released from the darkness are looking bright. [4-30-36]

Verse Locator

सूर्य आतप क्रामण नष्ट पंका
भूमिः चिर उद्घाटित सांद्र रेणुः |
अन्योन्य वैरेण समायुतानाम्
उद्योग कालो अद्य नर अधिपानाम् || ४-३०-३७

37. suurya aatapa kraamaNa naSTa pankaa = sun's, heat, by overcoming, lost [dried out,] sludge; bhuumiH = earth is with; cira udghaaTita saandra reNuH = after a long time [at last,] up-heaved, dense, dust; anyonya vaireNa = mutually, in animosity; sam aayutaanaam = to fore, gather [forces]; nara adhipaanaam = for people's, lords; adya udyoga kaalaH = now, strive [against,] time.

"Overcome by the sun's heat dried out is the sludge, at last the earth is dense with the up-heaved dust, and for the lords of people who have mutual animosity this is the time to foregather their forces to strive against one another. [4-30-37]

Verse Locator

शरत् गुण आप्यायित रूप शोभाः
प्रहर्षित पांशु समुक्षित अंगाः |
मद उत्कटाः संप्रति युद्ध लुब्धा
वृषा गवाम् मध्य गता नदन्ति || ४-३०-३८

38. sharat guNa aapyaayita ruupa shobhaaH = autumn, nature of, enhanced by, features [of bulls,] grandeur [of bulls, bullishness]; praharSitaaH paamshu samukshita angaaH = well-gladdened - ecstatic, with dust, covered, on limbs [bodies of nulls]; mada utkaTaaH = by vigour, pepped-up; gavaam madhya gataa = cows, midst, staying; vR^iSaa = bulls; samprati yuddha lubdhaa = presently, for fight [bullfight,] hankering for; nadanti = are bellowing.

"The nature of autumn has enhanced the features of bulls' bullishness and with their bodies covered with dust and their vigour pepping them up they are ecstatic, and staying in the midst of cowherd they are bellowing hankering for bullfights. [4-30-38]

Verse Locator

स मन्मध तीव्रतर अनुरागा
कुलान्विता मन्द गतिः करेणुः |
मदान्वितम् संपरिवार्य यान्तम्
वनेषु भर्तारम् अनुप्रयाति || ४-३०-३९

39. sa manmadha = with, passion; tiivratara anuraagaa = with intensified, attachment; kula anvitaa = class of elephants [homogenous,] along with - along with other she-elephants of the same order; manda gatiH = slow, paced one; kareNuH = she-elephant; vaneSu = in forests; yaantam = which is - going; mada anvitam = which is - rut, having; such an elephant who is; bhartaaram = her husband; sam parivaarya = well, encircling - rubbing and bumping into; anu prayaati = tagging along.

"While a ruttish male elephant is going in the forest the slow paced she-elephant is tagging along her male along with other elephants of her breed, and with an intensified attachment and passion she is bumping and rubbing her husband. [4-30-39]

Verse Locator

त्यक्त्वा वराणि आत्म विभूषणानि
बर्हाणि तीर उपगता नदीनाम् |
निर्भर्त्स्यमाना इव सार ओघैः
प्रयान्ति दीना विमना मयूराः || ४-३०-४०

40. aatma vibhuuSaNaani = to themselves, that are ornaments; varaaNi barhaaNi tyaktvaa = excellent, plumaged-tails, on loosing - flaked out; nadiinaam tiira upagataa = of rivers, to riverbanks, arrived near; mayuuraaH = peacocks; saara oghaiH = by Saarasa birds, flocks of; nirbhartsyamaanaa iva = intimidated, as if; diinaa vi manaa = despondently, without heart - dispiritedly; prayaanti = going - turning back.

"The excellent plumaged-tails that form their individual ornaments of peacocks are now cast out, and the plumeless peacocks on nearing the banks of rivers they look as if intimidated by the Saarasa birds, thus they had to turn back despondently and dispiritedly. [4-30-40]

The peacocks are like those that have enjoyed their fortunes once but now divested of them. Thus, they have to turn away from the newly fortunate Saarasa birds, whose fortune is enriched by this autumn, though they are inferior to peacocks in anyway. This is because the lusty twitters of Saarasa birds are more or less insulations to these one-time-fortunate peacocks. So also, should the one-time-fortunate Rama, be insulted by the newly fortunate Sugreeva?

Verse Locator

वित्रास्य कारण्डव चक्रवाकान् |
महा रवैः भिन्न कटा गजेन्द्राः |
सरस्सु बद्ध अंबुज भूषणेषु
विक्षोभ्य विक्षोभ्य जलम् पिबन्ति || ४-३०-४१

41. bhinna kaTaa = with slit, temples; gajendraaH = elephants, kingly; mahaa ravaiH = with great, alarums - blaring trumpeting; kaaraNDava cakravaakaan vi traasya = Karandava, Cakravaka birds, on alarming; baddha [buddha] ambu ja bhuuSaNeSu = bonded, [blooming,] with water, born [lotuses,] embellished with; sarassu = in lakes; jalam = water; vi kshobhya vi kshobhya = agitating, verily, agitating [swishing and swashing]; pibanti = drinking.

"With their blaring trumpeting lordly elephants with slit temples are alarming Karandava and Cakravaka birds abiding in lakes that are embellished with blooming lotuses, and those elephants are drinking water after swishing and swashing the tranquillity of those lakes. [4-30-41]

The tranquillity of Rama's lake-like heart in which Seetha abides in blooming lotus is swished and swashed by a ruttish elephant, called Sugreeva, whose sudden fortune like the seasonal water in lakes, that too made available by Rama, is making him to swill only a few mouthfuls of watery toddy-liquor. For that Rama, who is flitting so far from forest to forest, is alarmed like the flitting birds called Kaarandava and Cakravaka-s.

Verse Locator

व्यपेत पंकजासु स वालुकासु
प्रसन्न तोयासु स गो कुलासु |
स सारसा राव विनादितासु
नदिषु हंसा निपतन्ति हृष्टाः || ४-३०-४२

42. vyapeta pankajaasu = de-silted, is the silt; sa vaalukaasu = with, sand-dunes prasanna toyaasu = in serene, waters; sa go kulaasu = , with, cows, stock; sa saarasaa raava vinaaditaasu = with, Saarasa birds', clucking, well-sounded; nadiSu = in such - rivers; hamsaa hR^iSTaaH nipatanti = swans, delightedly, falling down [diving deeply.]

"De-silted is the silt of rivers and they are with sand-dunes and serene waters, and cow-stock is gathering there, besides, they are resonant with clucking of Saarasa birds, in such rivers swans are delightedly taking deep dives. [4-30-42]

Verse Locator

नदी घन प्रस्रवण उदकानाम्
अति प्रवृद्ध अनिल बर्हिणानाम् |
प्लवंगमानाम् च गत उत्सवानाम्
ध्रुवम् रवाः संप्रति संप्रणष्टाः || ४-३०-४३

43. samprati = presently; nadii ghana prasravaNa udakaanaam = river's [ruffles,] cloud's [rumbles,] mountain-rapid's [rattles,] of waters; ati pravR^iddha anila barhiNaanaam = much, amplified, wind's [gust,] peacock's [screams]; gata utsavaanaam = gone, is their festivity; plavangamaanaam ca = of frogs' [crocking,] also; ravaaH = noises; sam pra NaSTaaH = very, well, undone; dhruvam = definitely.

"The ruffles of rivers, rumbles of clouds, rattles of rapids, such rackets of waters are quietened, and much amplified gusts of wind, and screams of peacocks along with crocks of frogs, are now completely undone as their festivity is definitely lost with the rains. [4-30-43]

Verse Locator

अनेक वर्णाः सुविनष्ट कायाः
नव उदितेषु अंबुधरेषु नष्टाः |
क्षुध अर्दिता घोर विषा बिलेभ्यः
चिर उषिता विप्रसरन्ति सर्पाः || ४-३०-४४

44. ambu dhareSu = water, carriers - clouds; nava uditeSu = newly, emerged ones when they have come, in rainy season; naSTaaH = lost - lost in snake holes; su vi naSTa kaayaaH = well, contracted, bodies - highly emaciated; aneka varNaaH = variously, coloured ones; kshudha arditaa = by hunger, stricken; ghora viSaa = dangerously, venomous ones; cira uSitaa = for long time, stayed - in pits and holes; sarpaaH = such - snakes; bilebhyaH = from holes - snake pits; vi prasaranti = verily, snaking out.

"Variously coloured and dangerously venomous snakes have contracted into their snake pits with the advent of new rain clouds, and containing in there for a long time they are highly emaciated for they are hunger-stricken, but now they are snaking out of those pits. [4-30-44]

While frogs welcome the rain snakes despise the same. In the game of hunter-hunted, snakes are now on spree for their hunt, because the festivity of frogs is over and they can fall prey to snakes. But where is the prey, namely Ravana, for the snaky arrows of Rama?

Verse Locator

चंचत् चन्द्र कर स्पर्श हर्ष उन्मीलित तारका |
अहो रागवती संध्या जहाति स्वयम् अंबरम् || ४-३०-४५

45. cancat candra = shining, moon's; kara = moonbeam; sparsha = by touch of; harSa = delightedly; unmiilita = unfolding; taarakaa = stars; raaga vatii = a damsel in love; sandhyaa = twilight; svayam = on her own; ambaram = sky; jahaati = is releasing; aho = Aha!;


cancat candra = shining, moonlike lover's; kara = hand of lover; sparsha = by touch of; harSa = delightedly; unmiilita = widening; taarakaa = pupils; raaga vatii = damsel in love; svayam = on her own; sandhyaa = ochry; ambaram = robe; jahaati = disrobing; aho = Aha!

"Aha! By the touch of the moonbeam of the shining moon, the damsel called twilight is delightedly unfolding the stars releasing her ochry hue off the sky on her own, in all her love for the moon.


"Aha! By the touch of the hand of her twinkling hero a damsel in all her love to him is delightedly widening her pupils and disrobing her ochry robe on her own. [4-30-45]

Verse Locator

रात्रिः शशांक उदित सौम्य वक्त्रा
तारा गण उन्मीलित चारु नेत्रा |
ज्योत्स्ना अंशुक प्रावरणा विभाति
नारी इव शुक्ल अंशुक संवृत अंगी || ४-३०-४६

46. shashaanka udita saumya vaktraa = moon, risen, genteel, with face; taaraa gaNa unmiilita caaru netraa = stars, myriad of, twinkling, with eyes; jyotsnaa amshuka pra avaraNaa = moonlight, cloth, well, veiled; raatriH = night; shukla amshuka sam vR^ita angii = white, clothing, fully, enfolded, limbs; naarii iva = damsel, like; vibhaati = glistening.

"Damsel-night is with the risen-moon as her genteel-face, myriad-stars as her twinkling-eyes, moonlight as her veiling-cloth, and she is glistening like the one who fully-enfolded her limbs within a whitish-cloth-like moonshine. [4-30-46]

Verse Locator

विपक्व शालि प्रसवानि भुक्त्वा
प्रहर्षिता सारस चारु पंक्ति |
नभः समाक्रामति शीघ्र वेगा
वात अवधूता ग्रथित इव माला || ४-३०-४७

47. vi pakva shaali prasavaani = richly, ripened, rice, yield; bhuktvaa = on eating; praharSitaa = delighted; saarasa caaru pankti = Saarasa bird's, delightful, bird-line; shiighra vegaa = swift, in speed; vaata avadhuutaa = by wind, heaved up; grathita maalaa iva = stringed, flower-tassel, as with; nabhaH sam aakramati = sky, well, overrun;

"On eating richly ripened yield of rice delighted are the Saarasa birds, and in a delightful bird-line with swift speed they are overrunning the sky like a stringed flowery-tassel up-heaved by wind. [4-30-47]

Verse Locator

सुप्त एक हंसम् कुमुदैः उपेतम्
महा ह्रदस्थम् सलिलम् विभाति |
घनैः विमुक्तम् निशि पूर्ण चन्द्रम्
तारा गण कीर्णम् इव अंतरिक्षम् || ४-३०-४८

48. supta eka hamsam = having sleeping, one, swan; kumudaiH upetam = white-lotuses, thick with; mahaa hradastham salilam = in a vast, lake, water; nishi = in night; ghanaiH vimuktam = by clouds, disengaged; taaraa gaNa kiirNam = stars, with clusters of, strewn [star-studded]; puurNa candram = having full, moon; antariksham iva vibhaati = skyscape, as though, appear to be.

"One swan is sleeping in the water of a vast lake thick with white-lotuses, and that lake is glistening like the star-studded nightly skyscape that is disengaged from clouds, and that has the full-moon. [4-30-48]

Very deep and vast is the tank in which clear and unruffled water is there. On that water one white swan is sleeping around which white-lotuses are thickset. It is like the nightly autumnal vault of heaven brightened with one full moon and many stars, clear of any cloud.

Verse Locator

प्रकीर्ण हंसा अकुल मेखलानाम्
प्रबुद्ध पद्म उत्पल मालिनीनाम् |
वापीः उत्तमानाम् अधिक अद्य लक्ष्मीः
वर अंगनाम् इव भूषितानाम् || ४-३०-४९

49. pra kiirNa hamsaa akula mekhalaanaam = well, spread around, swans, swaying, as girdle; pra buddha padma utpala maaliniinaam = well, bloomed, pink-lotuses, blue-lotuses, as flowery-tassels; vaapiiH uttamaanaam = of tanks, best ones; lakshmiiH = resplendence; adya = now; bhuuSitaanaam vara anganaam iva = embellished, best, dame, like; adhika = is very much - heightening.

"With swans spreading and swaying around as her swaying girdle-ornaments, and with well-bloomed red and blue lotuses as her swinging flowery-tassels, the resplendence of those best tanks is now heightening as with a dame embellished with girdle-ornaments and flowery-tassels. [4-30-49]

The swaying swan-lines are the girdles of the lake-maid, and lotus-rows are her flowery tassels, and with the floating of the swans the water ruffles, then that ruffled water is ruffling those girdles and tassels on the sheet of water, thus the tank is appearing like a maiden on whose body girdles and tassels are swaying and swinging.

Verse Locator

वेणु स्वर व्यंजित तूर्य मिश्रः
प्रत्यूष काले अनिल संप्रवृत्तः |
संमूर्च्छितो गह्वर गो वृषाणाम्
अन्योन्यम् आपूरयति इव शब्दः || ४-३०-५०

50. veNu svara vyanjita tuurya mishraH = flute's, tune, in tune, mixed up - tuned up; anila sam pra vR^ittaH = by breeze, well, started to broadcast; sam muurcChitaH = well, spreading out; shabdaH = sound; pratyuuSa kaale = in dawn, time; gahvara go vR^iSaaNaam = from caves, cows, bulls; anyonyam aapuurayati iva = one another, permeating - outdoing, as though.

"In tune with the tunes of flute the dawn-time breeze is tuned-up, and it is spreading to broadcast the tuneful tunes from the caves, cows and bulls, and the sounds are as though surpassing one another. [4-30-50]

The dawn time bustle is indicated. At this time various tunes like the rhythmic churning of milk, cows bellowing for their calves to give milk, and bulls in rut bellowing for cows, and the fluting of the transverse flutes of cattle-boys, and the chanting of Vedic hymns that are audible like the sound emitted from mountain caves are permeating into the breeze. And the tuneful breeze is supplementing that intermixed sound, and thus all are commixed and broadcast by that breeze to the delight of the inhabitants of that locale.

Verse Locator

नवैः नदीनाम् कुसुम प्रहासैः
व्या धूयमानैः मृदु मारुतेन |
धौत अमल क्षौम पट प्रकाशैः
कूलानि काशैः उपशोभितानि || ४-३०-५१

51. nadiinaam kuulaani = river's, banks; kusuma prahaasaiH = with flowers, as smiles; mR^idu maarutena = by softy, breeze; vyaa dhuuyamaanaiH = being up, heaved - swayed; dhauta amala kshauma paTa prakaashaiH = well-washed, white, silk, cloth, with shine; navaiH kaashaiH = with new, reed-beds; upa shobhitaani = shining forth.

"The riverbanks are with smiley white flowers of new reeds that are softly swayed by the gentle breeze, and the silken reed-bed on them is shining forth like a well-washed white silk-cloth that is shiny. [4-30-51]

While the reed-beds with white flowers on either side of two banks of the river are like a white silky outfit, the two riverbanks beneath them are the two buttocks of that lady-river. Since her water is tossing against each bank, her buttocks appear swinging and thereby the silk clothe like reed-bed is swinging.

Verse Locator

वन प्रचण्डा मधु पान शौण्डाः
प्रिय अन्विताः षट् चरणाः प्रहृष्टाः |
वनेसु मत्ताः पवन अनु यात्राम्
कुर्वन्ति पद्म आसन रेणु गौराः || ४-३०-५२

52. vana pracaNDaa = in forest, rampant ones - on the loose; madhu paana shauNDaaH = honey, drinking, roguish ones; prahR^iSTaaH = delightedly; mattaaH = saucily; padma aasana reNu gauraaH = lotuses, Asana flowers', with pollen, yellowed; such; SaT caraNaaH = six, footed - hexapods, honeybees; priya anvitaaH = lady-loves, along with; pavana anu yaatraam = breeze, in tow, journey; kurvanti = making - journeying.

"Honeybees that are on the loose in forests and roguish in drinking honey are yellowed with the pollen of lotuses and asana flowers when they had bouts of nectar, and they are saucily but delightedly making their journey along with their lady-loves in tow with the forest breeze. [4-30-52]

Verse Locator

जलम् प्रसन्नम् कुसुम प्रहासम्
क्रौन्च स्वनम् शालि वनम् विपक्वम् |
मृदुः च वायुः विमलः च चन्द्रः
शंसन्ति वर्ष व्यपनीत कालम् || ४-३०-५३

53. kusuma prahaasam = with flower, smiles - blooming; kraunca svanam = with crane-birds, noisy; prasannam = tranquilly; jalam = water; vipakvam shaali vanam = ripely, rice, crops; mR^iduH vaayuH ca = softly, breeze, also; vimalaH ca candraH = brightly, also, moon; varSa = rains;' vyapaniita [vi apa niita] = removed, phased out; kaalam = time; shamsanti = denoting.

"Waters are standing tranquilly, flowers are smiley, crane-birds are noisily, rice-crops are ripely, breeze is softly, and moon is brightly, thus they denote the time of rains has phased out. [4-30-53]

Verse Locator

मीन उप संदर्शित मेखलानाम्
नदी वधूनाम् गतयो अद्य मंदाः |
कान्त उपभुक्त अलस गामिनीनाम्
प्रभात कालेषु इव कामिनीनाम् || ४-३०-५४

54. miina upa sam darshita mekhalaanaam = fish, closely, very, seen, girdle ornament; nadii vadhuunaam = river, dames; gatayaH = strutting; adya = nowadays; prabhaata kaaleSu = at dawn, time - early morning; kaanta upa bhukta alasa gaaminiinaam = with lover, on romancing, tiresomely, that are strutting; kaaminiinaam iva = lady-loves, as with; mandaaH = slothful.

"In the dame-like rivers fish are very closely seen as if they are girdle ornaments of that dame, and nowadays these dames are strutting slothfully like ladyloves who strut tiresomely in the early morning of next day, after a nightlong romancing with their lovers. [4-30-54]

Verse Locator

स चक्रवाकानि स शैवलानि
काशैः दुकूलैः इव संवृतानि |
स पत्र रेखाणि स रोचनानि
वधू मुखानि इव नदी मुखानि || ४-३०-५५

55. sa cakravaakaani = with, Cakravaka birds; sa shaivalaani = with, river-weeds; dukuulaiH iva = silk-cloths, as if with; kaashaiH sam vR^itaani = with reeds, well, enwrapped [half-veiling]; nadii mukhaani = such - river's, faces - river-declivities; sa patra rekhaaNi = with, foliage, lines; sa rocanaani = with, vermilion-colour [painted]; vadhuu mukhaani iva = maiden's, faces, are like.

"With Cakravaka birds, with riverweeds, and with reeds that lookalike a veiling silk-cloth, half-veiled are the river-shores and they look painted with foliage-lines in vermilion, like the faces of maidens. [4-30-55]

The face of a river is its ghat, river-shore where the holy-dips, worships etc., are performed. The citra rekhaa-s are the artistic lines drawn on visible limbs with vegetable colours, namely foliages, a design in art, resembling that of leaves. It resembles the inerasable tattooing, whereas this sort of lines are crafted with vegetable colours or with the orpiment like Gorocana, which will fade away after some days, like henna mehandi. This is a handicraft of womenfolk who sophisticatedly draw the shapes of leafs, creeper-plants etc. Nowadays these leafy-lined decorations are coming as stickers.

Verse Locator

प्रफुल्ल बाण आसन चित्रितेषु
प्रहृष्ट षट्पदानि कूजितेषु |
गृहीत चापः उद्यत दण्ड चण्डः
प्रचण्ड चारो अद्य वनेषु कामः || ४-३०-५६

56. adya = these days; praphulla baaNa aasana citriteSu = flourishing, Baana, Asana trees, portrayed with; prahR^iSTa SaTpadaani kuujiteSu = elatedly, honeybees, in which they are humming; vaneSu = in such forests; gR^ihiita caapaH udyata daNDa caNDaH = taking, bow, to punish, unimpededly; kaamaH - Love-god, Manmatha; pracaNDa caaraH = predominantly, moving.

"In the forest that is portrayed with the flourishing Baana and Asana trees, where the honeybees are humming elatedly, there alone the Love-god, Manmatha, is moving about unimpededly taking his bow to punish the lovesick. [4-30-56]

Verse Locator

लोकम् सुवृष्ट्या परितोषयित्व
नदीः तटाकानि च पूरयित्वा |
निष्पन्न सस्याम् वसुधाम् च कृत्वा
त्यक्त्वा नभः तोय धराः प्रणष्टाः || ४-३०-५७

57. toya dharaaH = water, giver of torrents - black clouds; su vR^iSTyaa = by good, rains; lokam paritoSayitva = world, having appeased; nadiiH taTaakaani puurayitvaa ca = rivers, tanks, filling, also; vasudhaam niSpanna sasyaam kR^itvaa ca = earth, deriving, harvests, on making, also; nabhaH tyaktvaa = sky, on forsaking; praNaSTaaH = dissipated.

"On appeasing the world with good rains, on filling the rivers and tanks, and on making the earth to derive good harvests also, clouds have dissipated forsaking the sky. [4-30-57]

Verse Locator

दर्शयन्ति शरन् नद्यः पुलिनानि शनैः शनैः |
नव संगम सव्रीडा जघनानि इव योषितः || ४-३०-५८

58. nava sangama sa vriiDaa = new, tryst, with, shying; yoSitaH jaghanaani iva = a bride's, hips, as with; sharat nadyaH = autumnal, rivers; pulinaani dunes; shanaiH shanaiH darshayanti = slowly, slowly, showing.

"The autumnal rivers are showing their dunes slowly and slowly, as with shying brides showing hips in their new trysts, slowly and slowly. [4-30-58]

Verse Locator

प्रसन्न सलिलाः सौम्य कुरराभिः विनादिताः |
चक्रवाक गण आकीर्णा विभांति सलिल आशयाः || ४-३०-५९

59. saumya = oh, gentle Lakshmana; prasanna salilaaH = that have - clear, waters; kuraraabhiH = by fish -hawks; vi naaditaaH = verily, sounded; cakravaaka gaNa aakiirNaa = with Cakravaka birds, teams, teemed; salila aashayaaH = such - water, receptacles - lakes; vibhaanti = verily, glistening.

"Oh, gentle Lakshmana, with clear waters, well sounding fish-hawks, teeming teams of Cakravaka birds the lakes are glistening well. [4-30-59]

Verse Locator

अन्योन्य बद्ध वैराणाम् जिगीषूणाम् नृपात्मज |
उद्योग समयः सौम्य पार्थिवानाम् उपस्थितः || ४-३०-६०

60. nR^ipaatmaja = oh, king's, son; saumya = oh, gentle one; anyonya baddha vairaaNaam = reciprocally, bound, by hostility; jigiiSuuNaam = desirous of victory; such; paarthivaanaam = of kings; udyoga samayaH = striving, time; upa sthitaH = for kings, came to the fore.

"Oh, prince, those that are reciprocally bound by hostilities and desirous of victory, oh, gentle Lakshmana, for those kings their striving time has come up. [4-30-60]

Rama is also bound by hostile mood and anxious to start his campaign against evil as muhuurta  'opportune time...' has come. Please refer to verse 78 in this chapter for details.

Verse Locator

इयम् सा प्रथमा यात्रा पार्थिवानाम् नृपात्मज |
न च पश्यामि सुग्रीवम् उद्योगम् वा तथा विधम् || ४-३०-६१

61. nR^ipaatmaja = oh, king's, son; iyam paarthivaanaam = this is, for kings; saa = such as it is - that; prathamaa yaatraa [samayaH] = starting, journey [invasion, time]; sugriivam = [either] Sugreeva; tathaa vidham = in that, way - as such; udyogam vaa = [his] striving, or; na ca pashyaami = not, even, I perceive.

"This is the starting time for invasions of the kings, but I do not even perceive Sugreeva, or his striving for any invasion as such. [4-30-61]

Verse Locator

असनाः सप्त पर्णाः च कोविदाराः च पुष्पिताः |
दृश्यन्ते बन्धुजीवाः च श्यामाः च गिरि सानुषु || ४-३०-६२

62. giri saanuSu = on mountain, terraces; puSpitaaH = flowered; asanaaH sapta parNaaH ca = Asana trees, seven-leaved banana plants, also; kovidaaraaH ca Kovidara, also; bandhujiivaaH ca shyaamaaH ca = Bandhujiva trees, also, shyaama creepers; dR^ishyante = are appearing.

"On mountain terraces there appear flowered Asana trees, seven-leaved banana plants, Kovidaara, Bandhujiiva trees, and the Shyaama creepers. [4-30-62]

Verse Locator

हंस सारस चक्राह्वैः कुररैः च समंततः |
पुलिनानि अवकीर्णानि नदीनाम् पश्य लक्ष्मण || ४-३०-६३

63. lakshmaNa = Lakshmana; nadiinaam pulinaani = rivers, dunes; hamsa saarasa cakraahvaiH kuraraiH ca = Swans, Saarasa-s, Cakravaka-s, Kraunca birds, also; samantataH = all over; vyavakiirNaani [vi ava kiirNam] = fully, overspread with; pashya = see them.

"On the sand-dunes of rivers Swans, Saarasa-s, Cakravaka-s, also Kraunca birds are fully overspreading from all over, see Lakshmana. [4-30-63]

Here it is said that there is a problem with the copyist of palm-leaf books. These two verses 62 and 63 occur prior to the verse 60 in some mms. The thought of Rama is about Sugreeva as spoken at verse 61, and these two verses suddenly switching over to trees and birds, thus they are mismatching in the placement.

Verse Locator

चत्वारो वार्षिका मासा गता वर्ष शत उपमाः |
मम शोक अभितप्तस्य तथा सीताम् अपश्यतः || ४-३०-६४

64. siitaam = Seetha; a pashyataH = one who is not seeing; tathaa = likewise; shoka abhitaptasya = one who - in grief, seething; mama = such as I am, to me; varSa shata upamaaH years, hundred, in simile; vaarSikaaH = pertaining to rainy season; catvaaraH maasaa gataa = four, [rainy] months, rolled by.

"Four rainy months have rolled by and to me they are like a hundred years, for I have not seen Seetha, likewise I am seethed in grief. [4-30-64]

Verse Locator

चक्रवाकी इव भर्तारम् पृष्टतो अनुगता वनम् |
विषमम् दण्डकारण्यम् उद्यान वनम् इव च अंगना || ४-३०-६५

65. anganaa = lady [Seetha]; bhartaaram = husband, that is what I am; viSamam vanam daNDaka araNyam = to precarious, forest, of Dandaka, forest; udyaana vanam iva = to park, lands, as though; cakravaakii iva = Cakravaka female bird, as with; pR^iSTataH anugataa = rearward, followed.

"Like a female Cakravaka bird that follows rearward of her husband, that lady Seetha followed her husband, that is what I am, to the precarious forest of Dandaka, as if she is going to pleasure-gardens. [4-30-65]

Verse Locator

प्रिया विहीने दुःख आर्ते हृत राज्ये विवासिते |
कृपाम् न कुरुते राजा सुग्रीवो मयि लक्ष्मण || ४-३०-६६

66. lakSmaNa = Lakshmana; priyaa vihiine = I am with - dear, departed; duHkha aarte = in anguish, agitated - in desperate straits; hR^ita raajye = plundered, kingdom; vi vaasite = rendered, homeless - exiled; such as I am; mayi = in me; raajaa sugriivaH = king, Sugreeva; kR^ipaam na kurute = benevolence, not, doing.

"Dear departed, kingdom plundered, rendered homeless, and one in desperate straits, such as I am Lakshmana, king Sugreeva is not benevolent to me. [4-30-66]

Verse Locator

अनाथो हृत राज्यो अयम् रावणेन च धर्षितः ||
दीनो दूर गृहः कामी माम् चैव शरणम् गतः || ४-३०-६७

67. ayam = he is; a naathaH = one without, husband - insecure; hR^ita raajyaH = forfeited, of kingdom; raavaNena dharSitaH ca = by Ravana, persecuted, also; diinaH = who is dismal; duura gR^ihaH = distanced, house - came from a distant home; kaamii = a swain; maam caiva = me, alone [Sugreeva]; sharaNam gataH = shelter, gone in - thus Sugreeva may be thinking, coupled with next verse.

" 'He is insecure, kingdom forfeited, persecuted by Ravana, a dismal, came from a distant home, lovelorn and sought shelter in me alone...' thus Sugreeva may be thinking of me.


" ' Since his kingdom is forfeited, he is an insecure person... since he is persecuted by a powerful demon Ravana, he is dismal... since he came from a distant homeland, he hasn't got a leg to stand on... since he is lovelorn, he sought my shelter faint-heartedly...' thus Sugreeva may be thinking of me. [4-30-67]

Verse Locator

इति एतैः कारणैः सौम्य सुग्रीवस्य दुरात्मनः |
अहम् वानर राजस्य परिभूतः परंतप || ४-३०-६८

68. saumya = oh, gentle Lakshmana; parantapa = oh, enemy-blazer Lakshmana; iti = thus; etaiH = with these; kaaraNaiH = reasons; dur aatmanaH = spite, minded one; vaanara raajasya = by vanara, king; sugriivasya = by Sugreeva; aham = I am; paribhuutaH = scoffed off.

"By these reasons, oh gentle Lakshmana, I am perhaps scoffed off by the spiteful king of Vanara-s Sugreeva oh, the enemy-blazer, Lakshmana. [4-30-68]

Verse Locator

स कालम् परिसंख्याय सीतायाः परिमार्गणे |
कृतार्थः समयम् कृत्वा दुर्मतिः न अवबुध्यते || ४-३०-६९

69. dur matiH = base, minded one; saH = he; kR^ita arthaH = on achieving his means; siitaayaaH parimaargaNe = in Seetha's, in searching; kaalam pari sankhyaaya = he, time, well-computed - on informing; samayam kR^itvaa = treaty, on making [entering into]; na ava budhyate = not, not, minding [unmindful.]

"He computed the time for search of Seetha well, and entered into a treaty with me as well, but on achieving his means that base-minded one is unmindful of it. [4-30-69]

Verse Locator

स किष्किंधाम् प्रविश्य त्वम् ब्रूहि वानर पुंगवम् |
मूर्खम् ग्राम्य सुखे सक्तम् सुग्रीवम् वचनात् मम || ४-३०-७०

70. [ellipt. parantapa = oh, enemy-blazer Lakshmana;] saH = such as you are; tvam kiSkindhaam pravishya = you, Kishkindha, on entering; vaanara pungavam = Vanara, the arch-[enemy of mine]; muurkham = to stupid one; graamya sukhe saktam = one in uncouth, pleasures, tangled up; sugriivam = to Sugreeva; mama vacanaat bruuhi = of mine, upon word, you tell him.

"Oh, enemy blazer Lakshmana, such as you are, you enter Kishkindha and upon my word speak to that arch-vanara Sugreeva, which stupid is tangled up in uncouth pleasures. [4-30-70]

Verse Locator

अर्थिनाम् उपपन्नानाम् पूर्वम् च अपि उपकारिणाम् |
आशाम् संश्रुत्य यो हन्ति स लोके पुरुषाधमः || ४-३०-७१

71. upapannaanaam = who came to your fore [for your shelter]; puurvam upakaariNaam ca api = earlier, cooperators, also, even; arthinaam = to requesters; samshrutya = well-appraised [promised]; aashaam = their hope; yaH hanti = who, breaks it - will not fulfil; loke = in world; saH puruSa adhamaH = he, person, the worst.

" 'He who promises the requesters that have come under his shelter, and especially those that have cooperated earlier, but breaks that promise, and even shatters their hope, he is the worst fellow in the world. [4-30-71]

'We are the earnest requesters for the searching for Seetha and we have come seeking your shelter for achieving that purpose through you, and earlier we have even cooperated with you, viz., in killing your enemy and in enthroning you, and to such like us you have promised hope but now breaking it off, thus you tend to become a worst individual. Hence oh, Sugreeva, do not become the worst person in the world...' Thus, Rama is putting words in the mouth of Lakshmana to be spoken to Sugreeva.

Verse Locator

शुभम् वा यदि वा पापम् यो हि वाक्यम् उदीरितम् |
सत्येन परिगृह्णाति स वीरः पुरुषोत्तमः || ४-३०-७२

72. yaH hi = who, indeed; shubham vaa = good, either; yadi vaa paapam = if, or, bad; udiiritam vaakyam = spoken, word - promise; satyena pari gR^ihNaati = truthfully, wholly, takes - makes it a reality; saH viiraH puruSa uttamaH = he, is [counted as] a champion, among men, a best one.

" 'Whether it is good or bad, he who promises a word, and truthfully takes action for its accomplishment, indeed he is the champion and a best one among men. [4-30-72]

Promising in a helpless condition and unable to fulfil it in the same helpless situation does not make matters worse. But having attained a state of fulfilling that promise and not heedful of it, then the 'word-of-honour' conflict occurs.

Verse Locator

कृतार्था हि अकृतार्थानाम् मित्राणाम् न भवन्ति ये |
तान् मृतान् अपि क्रव्यादाः कृतघ्नान् न उपभुंजते || ४-३०-७३

73. ye = those; kR^ita arthaa hi = one on achieving, means, indeed; a kR^ita arthaanaam = un, achieved, means - to them that still have their means unachieved; mitraaNaam = to friends; na bhavanti = will not, be - come to the rescue of friends; mR^itaan kR^itaghnaan = dead ones, ingrates; taan = them; kravya aadaaH api = flesh [carrion,] eaters [devourers, vulturine species]; na upabhunjate = will not, devour.

" 'Indeed, those that have achieved their means through their friends, but do not come to the rescue of the same friends whose means are still unachieved, the carrion-devourers will not devour even the flesh of those ingrates after their death. [4-30-73]

Here these morals are said threadbare. Whereas these are explained vividly in Maha Bharata in episodes like naaDii jangha, and others. Thus some hold the opinion that Maha Bharata is an explanatory treatise to Ramayana because more than hundred upa aakhyaana-s 'sub-episodes' of Ramayana are incorporated in it and in detail. In detailing these episodes of Ramayana, that epic Maha Bharata has became more voluminous than this one.

Verse Locator

नूनम् कांचन पृष्ठस्य विकृष्टस्य मया रणे |
द्रष्टुम् इच्छसि चापस्य रूपम् विद्युत् गण उपमम् || ४-३०-७४

74. nuunam = definitely; kaancana pR^iSThasya = that has golden, in the rear-side - bow of Rama; raNe mayaa vikR^iSTasya = in war, by me, fully, stretched; caapasya = of the bow; vidyut gaNa upamam = electric-charges, clusters, in simile; ruupam = facet - of bow; draSTum icChasi = to see, you aspire.

" 'You definitely aspire to see that facet of the gold-spined bow of mine which in simile will be like a cluster of electric-discharges when I fully stretch it in war. [4-30-74]

Verse Locator

घोरम् ज्या तल निर्घोषम् क्रुद्धस्य मम संयुगे |
निर्घोषम् इव वज्रस्य पुनः संश्रोतुम् इच्छसि || ४-३०-७५

75. samyuge kruddhasya = in war, of the enraged one; mama = mine; vajrasya nirghoSam iva = Thunderbolt's, crashing thunder, as with; ghoram = calamitous; jyaa tala = bowstring, from the surface of - flat, linear bowstring; nirghoSam = crashing boom; punaH sam shrotum icChasi = once more, clearly, to hear, you are desirous of.

" 'Once more you desire to clearly hear that calamitous crashing boom from my bowstring, which is a soundalike with the crash of thunderbolt, when I angrily clang the unbent bowstring in a given war. [4-30-75]

Verse Locator

कामम् एवम् गते अपि अस्य परिज्ञाते पराक्रमे |
त्वत् सहायस्य मे वीर न चिन्ता स्यात् नृपात्मज || ४-३०-७६

76. nR^ipaatmaja = oh, king's, son; viira = oh, brave Lakshmana; asya = his - Sugreeva's; pari j~naate paraakrame = fully, made known, [my] valour; kaamam evam gate api = perhaps, that way, happened, even if - be that as it may; tvat sahaayasya = with you, as an associate; me = to me; cintaa na syaat = alarm, is not, there.

"But, oh, prince Lakshmana, Sugreeva is fully aware of my valour... be that as it may... oh, brave one, I am not alarmed as I have you as my associate. [4-30-76]

'Sugreeva is in complete knowledge about my valour for he testified it for himself when asking me to pierce the saala trees, lift the carcass of Dundubhi, and finally in killing Vali. He is aware as to why I killed Vali, viz., for transgressing the righteous path. Equally, that Sugreeva should be alarmed by now, for time is lapsed. Further, he should be alarmed, as I will eliminate him too, because he has gone back on his word, because a 'given word' is dearer to me. Furthermore, has he forgotten that my selfsame brother is at my side? Even then, does it not matter to him?

Another way of getting meaning is: asya parij~naate paraakrame kaamam evam gate api san 'his, made, know, valour [of Sugreeva,] may be, that way, evanished, even...' 'Sugreeva's valour which was made known to me at the time of befriending, though that might have evanished...' tvat sahaayasya me cintaa na syaat... 'by your help, to me, alarm, not, there...' 'Even then, I am un-alarmed as long as your help is there... Thus, oh, Lakshmana, you may tell Sugreeva that I depend less on his help, but I wish to eliminate him too, as he failed in his promise...'

Verse Locator

यद् अर्थम् अयम् आरंभः कृतः पर पुरम् जय |
समयम् न अभिजानाति कृतार्थः प्लवगेश्वरः || ४-३०-७७

77. para puram jaya = oh, enemy's, capitals, vanquisher - Lakshmana; yat artham ayam aarambhaH kR^itaH = for what, reason, this, venture [of his enthronement,] commenced; samayam = time - timeframe of that mission; kR^ita arthaH plavaga iishvaraH = one who achieved, his ends, fly-jumpers', king - Sugreeva; na abhijaanaati = is not, recognising.

"For which reason this venture of eliminating Vali and its sequel is commenced, oh, the vanquisher of enemy-capitals, Lakshmana, and the timeframe set for it, that king of fly-jumpers Sugreeva is not recognising, as his ends are achieved. [4-30-77]

Verse Locator

वर्षा समय कालम् तु प्रतिज्ञाय हरीश्वरः |
व्यतीतान् चतुरो मासान् विहरन् न अवबुध्यते || ४-३०-७८

78. hariishvaraH = Vanara-s, king; varSaa samaya kaalam tu = rainy, season, time, but; pratij~naaya [pratiikshya iti] = on promising [you await, thus]; viharan = wallowing in; vyatiitaan caturaH maasaan = slipped away, four, months; na avabudhyate = not, sensible of it.

"But on promising to get back after rainy season that king of vanara-s is insensible to the slipping away of those four months time of rainy season, for he is wallowing in his pleasures. [4-30-78]

The Hindu season is calculated as two-month-period of Gregorian calendar and thus there are six seasons in Indian calendar. But here it said that four months time is elapsed and it is captioned to be rainy season. The commentary of Kulluka Bhatt says that four are the months for rainy season.

vaarShikaam caturo maasaan yathaa indro abhi pra varShati - ShraavaNaadii~N caturo maasaasaan... When the specified season is calculated as four month period it takes part in the preceding and succeeding seasons. Thus griiSma 'summer' takes part in vasanta 'spring' and sharat 'post rainy season' in varSa 'rainy season' and shishira 'cold' in hemanta 'winter' season. Thus the month to start campaigns is maargashira roughly 'Nov-Dec' has come, for which arrangements have to be made in kaartika 'Sept - Oct' month.

Verse Locator

स अमात्य परिषत् क्रीडन् पानम् एव उपसेवते |
शोक दीनेषु न अस्मासु सुग्रीवः कुरुते दयाम् || ४-३०-७९

79. sugriivaH sa amaatya pariSat kriiDan = Sugreeva, with, ministers, council of, while frolicking; paanam eva upasevate = drinking, alone, absorbed in; shoka diineSu asmaasu = by grief, agonising, in us; na kurute dayaam = not, doing [bestowing,] sympathy.

"Frolicking with all in the council of ministers Sugreeva is absorbed in drinking alone, and he is not sympathising with us who are agonised by grief. [4-30-79]

Verse Locator

उच्यताम् गच्छ सुग्रीवः त्वया वीरः महाबल |
मम रोषस्य यत् रूपम् ब्रूयाः च एनम् इदम् वचः || ४-३०-८०

80. mahaabala = oh, great-mighty one; viiraH = oh, brave one; gacCha = you go - to Kishkindha; tvayaa = by you - through you; sugriivaH = [let] Sugreeva; mama roSasya yat ruupam = mine, fury's, which, shape - takes; ucyataam = let it be said; enam = to him; idam vacaH bruuyaaH ca = this, word, be told, also.

"Oh, great-mighty Lakshmana, you may proceed to Kishkindha and let Sugreeva know through you as to how my fury takes shape, and oh, brave one, he may be told this word also. [4-30-80]

Verse Locator

न स संकुचितः पंथा येन वाली हतो गतः |
समये तिष्ठ सुग्रीव मा वालि पथम् अन्वगाः || ४-३०-८१

81. sugriiva = oh, Sugreeva; samaye tiSTha = by commitment, you abide; hataH vaalii = killed, Vali; yena = by which - path; gataH = has gone; that; pamthaaH = that path; na ca samkucitaH = not, even, tapered off; vaali patham maa anvagaaH = Vali's, path, do not, follow.

" 'Oh, Sugreeva, abide by your commitment. The path by which slain Vali has gone is not tapered off, as such do not tread Vali's path. [4-30-81]

Verse Locator

एक एव रणे वाली शरेण निहतो मया |
त्वाम् तु सत्यात् अतिक्रांतम् हनिष्यामि स बान्धवम् || ४-३०-८२

82. mayaa raNe = by me, in conflict; shareNa = with arrow; eka vaalii eva nihataH = singly, Vali, alone, is killed; satyaat ati kraantam = from truthfulness, over, stepped; tvaam tu = you, but; sa baandhavam haniSyaami = along with, kith and kin, I wish to slay.

" 'In a clash Vali is slain singly with my arrow, but I wish to slay you along with your kith and kin since you have transgressed truthfulness. [4-30-82]

Verse Locator

तत् एवम् विहिते कार्ये यत् हितम् पुरुषर्षभ |
तत् तत् ब्रूहि नरश्रेष्ठ त्वर काल व्यतिक्रमः || ४-३०-८३

83. puruSarSabha = oh, best one among men - Lakshmana; nara shreSTha = oh, foremost of men - Lakshmana; tat = therefore; kaarye evam vihite = in mission - of search, this way, is scheduled - hampered; yat hitam = which is, appropriate; tat tat bruuhi that, that - all in all, you speak about; tvara = hurry up; kaala vyatikramaH = time, lapse [let not time lapse.]

"Oh, best one among men, Lakshmana, when the mission of searching for Seetha is scheduled in this way but hampered, you speak about all things that are appropriate for us and for Sugreeva even, oh, foremost one among men, hurry up, let there be no time lapse. [4-30-83]

Verse Locator

कुरुष्व सत्यम् मम वानरेश्वर
प्रतिश्रुतम् धर्मम् अवेक्ष्य शाश्वतम् |
मा वालिनम् प्रेत गतो यम क्षयम्
त्वम् अद्य पश्येः मम चोदितः शरैः || ४-३०-८४

84. vaanareshvara = oh, monkeys king; shaashvatam = perpetual; dharmam = virtuousness; avekSya = on apperceiving; mama pratishrutam = to me, what is promised; satyam kuruSva = as a reality, render it; adya tvam mama sharaiH coditaH = now, you, by my, arrows, driven; preta gataH = dead body, on getting - after death; vaalinam yama kSayam maa pashyeH = to Vali, in Yama, Time-god's, house [hell,] do not, see.

" 'Oh, king of monkeys, on apperceiving the perpetual virtuousness in what you have promised to me, render it as a reality. Otherwise, now driven by my arrows to death, and on going to Yama, the Time-god's Inferno, you will see Vali " Thus Rama appraised Lakshmana about his thinking of Sugreeva. [4-30-84]

Verse Locator

स पूर्वजम् तीव्र विवृद्ध कोपम्
लालप्यमानम् प्रसमीक्ष्य दीनम् |
चकार तीव्राम् मतिम् उग्र तेजा
हरीश्वरे मानव वंश वर्थनः || ४-३०-८५

85. maanava vamsha varthanaH = Manu's, dynasty, augmenter of; ugra tejaa = intensively, resplendent one; saH = he that Lakshmana; tiivra vivR^iddha kopam = by far, verily intensified, with anger - who became ruthlessly uncompassionate; diinam laalapyamaanam = pitiably, prating - small talk; puurva jam = earlier, born one -elder brother; pra samiikSya = clearly, on examining; hariishvare = towards monkeys', king - Sugreeva; tiivram matim cakaara = hostile, mood, he made.

On clearly examining his elder brother Rama, who has become ruthlessly uncompassionate and pitiably prating, the mood of that intensively resplendent Lakshmana, who is an augmenter of Manu's dynasty, has become hostile towards the monkey-king Sugreeva. [4-30-85]

- - -

इति वाल्मीकि रामायणे आदि काव्ये किष्किन्ध काण्डे त्रिंश सर्गः

Thus, this is the 30th chapter in Kishkindha Kanda of Valmiki Ramayana, the First Epic poem of India.

Verse Locator for Book IV : Kishkindha Kanda - The Empire of Holy Monkeys : Chapter 30

Top of Page 1 2 3 4
5 6 7 8 9
10 11 12 13 14
15 16 17 18 19
20 21 22 23 24
25 26 27 28 29
30 31 32 33 34
35 36 37 38 39
40 41 42 43 44
45 46 47 48 49
50 51 52 53 54
55 56 57 58 59
60 61 62 63 64
65 66 67 68 69
70 71 72 73 74
75 76 77 78 79
80 81 82 83 84

© 2002, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised : August 04]