Book IV : Kishkindha Kanda - The Empire of Holy Monkeys

Chapter [Sarga] 31
Verses converted to UTF-8, Nov 09


Enraged Lakshmana goes to the extent of saying that Sugreeva is to be eliminated and then Angada and others will search for Seetha. Perturbed by his brother's vehemence Rama pacifies him and sends to Kishkindha where on seeing the infuriated, hissing, snakelike Lakshmana monkeys are upset. Lakshmana sends Angada to Sugreeva to inform about his arrival. Sugreeva could not comprehend firstly because he is in an inebriated condition, but later comes to senses on the advise of his ministers.

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स कामिनम् दीनम् अदीन सत्त्वः
शोक अभिपन्नम् समुदीर्ण कोपम् |
नरेन्द्र सूनुर् नरदेव पुत्रम्
रामानुजः पूर्वजम् इति उवाच || ४-३१-१

1. nara indra suunuH = people's, king's, son - prince Lakshmana; saH raama anujaH = he that, to Rama, later born one - younger one - Lakshmana; kaaminam diinam = one who is yearning, thereby pitiable - Rama; but; a diina sattvaH = not, deterred, in stamina; shoka abhipannam = by grief, who is overcome; sam udiirNa kopam = one with well, intensified, anger; nara deva putram = to people's, godlike-king's, son - to prince Rama; puurva jam = to earlier, born one - to Rama, the elder brother; iti uvaaca = this way, spoke.

When Rama of undeterred stamina has become pitiable while yearning for Seetha, overcome with grief while the search for Seetha is becoming futile, overwrought with anger while Sugreeva is reneging on his promise, to such an elder prince-brother from a godlike king, his younger prince-brother Lakshmana spoke in this way. [4-31-1]

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न वानरः स्थास्यति साधु वृत्ते
न मन्यते कर्म फल अनुषंगान् |
न भोक्ष्यते वानर राज्य लक्ष्मीम्
तथा हि न अभिक्रमते अस्य बुद्धिः || ४-३१-२

2. vaanaraH = forester - Sugreeva; saadhu vR^itte na sthaasyati = in gentlefolk's, conduct, will not, abide; karma phala anuSangaan = of deed, fruits, incidental events; na manyate = not, appreciative of; vaanara raajya lakSmiim = Vanara, kingdom's, prosperity of; na bhokSyate = will not, enjoy; tathaa hi = obviously, isn't it; asya buddhiH na abhi kramate = his, mind, not, forward, strides - his prudence is behindhand.

"As a forester Sugreeva will not abide by the conduct of gentlefolk, he is not appreciative of the fruits of incidental events like gaining kingdom and regaining wife occurring out of your deed of eliminating Vali, thus he will not enjoy the prosperity of the kingdom anymore. Obviously his prudence is behindhand, isn't it! [4-31-2]

"Remaining adherent in the thick and thin of friends is friendship. That is the least kindness expected of a friend. Because Sugreeva is a fickly monkey, he may not abide by the oath of friendship taken before fire altar, whereby you eliminated Vali, and enthroned Sugreeva; but, he may not keep that pact or its fruits holy, as nothing is evincible of his help...

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मति क्षयात् ग्राम्य सुखेषु सक्तः
तव प्रसाद अप्रतिकार बुद्धिः |
हतो अग्रजम् पश्यतु वालिनम्
न राज्यम् एवम् विगुणस्य देयम् || ४-३१-३

3. tava = your; prasaada = beneficence; a prati kaara buddhiH = not, in turn, making - for requital, a mind for - without the notion for requital; mati kSayaat = sanity, by impairment - with an unsound mind - insanely; graamya sukheSu saktaH = in primitive, pleasures, he is involved in; hatH = when slain [by you]; agrajam vaalinam pashyatu = [his] elder-brother [Vali,] let him see; evam = that is why; vi guNasya = to one - without, honesty; raajyam na deyam = kingdom, not, to be given.

"Without any notion of requiting the beneficence you have accorded he is insanely involved in primitive pleasures, such as he is, let him see his elder brother Vali when slain. Hence, kingdoms are unaffordable to dishonest. [4-31-3]

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न धारये कोपम् उदीर्ण वेगम्
निहन्मि सुग्रीवम् असत्यम् अद्य |
हरि प्रवीरैः सह वालि पुत्रो
नरेन्द्र पुत्र्या विचयम् करोतु || ४-३१-४

4. udiirNa vegam kopam = tiding, quickly, anger; na dhaaraye = not, bearable; adya a satyam sugriivam nihanmi = now, un, truthful one, Sugreeva, I will kill; vaali putraH = Vali's, son - Angada; hari pra viiraiH saha = monkey, best, braving ones, along with; narendra putryaa = of king's, daughter - of princess, Seetha; vicayam karotu = searching, will do.

"Unbearable is this anger that is tiding quickly, now I shall kill that unfaithful Sugreeva and the best braving monkeys shall search for that princess Seetha, remaining under the command of Vali's son, Angada." Thus said Lakshmana to Rama. [4-31-4]

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तम् आत्त बाण आसनम् उत्पतंतम्
निवेदित अर्थम् रण चण्ड कोपम् |
उवच रामः पर वीर हन्ता
स्व वेक्षितम् स अनुनयम् च वाक्यम् || ४-३१-५

5. para viira hantaa = others [enemy-side] braving ones, slayer of; raamaH = Rama; nivedita artham = one who has apprised, his intention; raNa caNDa kopam = with wartime, irrepressible, one with such anger; aatta baaNa aasanam = who took, arrows, seat of - bow; ut patantam = up, surging - leaping at; tam = to him - to Lakshmana; sva vekSitam = verily, thought over; sa anunayam ca vaakyam = with, persuasion, also, sentence; uvaca = Rama spoke.

Rama, the slayer of braving enemies, spoke this well thought sentence that includes persuasiveness to Lakshmana who is with an irrepressible wartime anger, who has apprised his intention to slay Sugreeva, and who on taking his bow is now leaping at Kishkindha. [4-31-5]

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न हि वै त्वत् विधो लोके पापम् एवम् समाचरेत् |
कोपम् आर्येण यो हन्ति स वीरः पुरुषोत्तमः || ४-३१-६

6. tvat vidhaH = your, kind of - person; loke = in world; evam paapam = this type of, sin; na hi sam aacaret = not, certainly, will commit; yaH = who; aaryeNa [aarya bhaavena] = with a noble gesture; kopam hanti = anger, kills [that anger]; saH viiraH = he, is valorous one; puruSottamaH vai = best one among men, really.

"Certainly none of your kind shall commit this sort of sin in this world, and if such a situation occurs, he who by his noble gesture kills his own anger is a valorous one, and he really becomes the best one among men." Thus Rama is saying to Lakshmana. [4-31-6]

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न इदम् अत्र त्वया ग्राह्यम् साधु वृत्तेन लक्ष्मण |
ताम् प्रीतिम् अनुवर्तस्व पूर्व वृत्तम् च संगतम् || ४-३१-७

7. lakSmaNa = oh, Lakshmana; saadhu vR^ittena tvayaa = of righteous, conduct, by you; atra = in this matter; idam na graahyam = this, not, to be understood [undertaken]; taam = them [those aspects of]; priitim = friendliness; puurva vR^ittam = earlier, existed; sangatam ca = affinity, also; anuvartasva = you adhere to.

"Lakshmana, as person with righteous conduct you are not supposed to understand this matter in this way, or undertake in this way, but you are supposed to adhere to those aspects of friendliness with Sugreeva and the affinity earlier existed in dealing with him. [4-31-7]

In the last chapter Rama says that he wants to kill Sugreeva for his faithlessness. Now Lakshmana is parroting out those very words. But Rama is now telling that 'killing a friend is a sin, so you do not commit it...' Is Rama contradicting his own statements in last chapter? In reply it is said, not so. Last time Rama gave a picture of his ire about Sugreeva, to the extent of eliminating him, if Sugreeva still avoids any arrangement. But Lakshmana, being straight-to-nose person and a textualist, has started to Kishkindha to eliminate Sugreeva and to enthrone Angada, under whose leadership the other monkeys can search Seetha. It is same situation with Hanuma in Sundara, where Hanuma is asked just to elicit the whereabouts of Seetha, but he burns down Lanka, and if anybody questions, Hanuma is apt to say that he is monkeyish with Lanka. Such an occasion shall not happen in Kishkindha, that too through Lakshmana. Thus, Rama is pacifying Lakshmana in saying that 'my words shall not be understood that way, and killing of Sugreeva is not to be undertaken forthwith.'

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साम उपहितया वाचा रूक्षाणि परिवर्जयन् |
वक्तुम् अर्हसि सुग्रीवम् व्यतीतम् काल पर्यये || ४-३१-८

8. kaala paryaye = when time, lapsed - flouted timeframe; vyatiitam sugriivam = to reneger, to Sugreeva; ruukSaaNi parivarjayan = caustic [remarks,] leaving off; saama upahitayaa vaacaa = placate, having in them [placatory,] words; vaktum arhasi = to talk, apt of you.

"It will be apt of you to speak to that reneger Sugreeva with placating words rather than with caustic remarks, as his sin is no more than flouting the timeframe." Thus Rama said to Lakshmana. [4-31-8]

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सो अग्रजेन अनुशिष्ट अर्थो यथावत् पुरुषर्षभः |
प्रविवेश पुरीम् वीरो लक्ष्मणः पर वीर हा || ४-३१-९

9. agrajena = by elder brother; yathaavat = as expedient; anushiSTa arthaH = who is schooled, about means; puruSarSabhaH = among men, the best one; para viira haa = enemy, brave ones, slayer of; viiraH = brave one; saH lakSmaNaH = such, Lakshmana; puriim pravivesha = city, entered - proceeded to enter.

That brave one and the slayer of braving enemies Lakshmana thus schooled expediently by his elder brother about the means of gainfulness, that best one among men proceeded to enter the city of Kishkindha. [4-31-9]

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ततः शुभ मतिः प्राज्ञो भ्रातुः प्रियहितेरतः |
लक्ष्मणः प्रतिसंरब्धो जगाम भवनम् कपेः || ४-३१-१०
शक्र बाणासन प्रख्यम् धनुः कालांतक उपमः |
प्रगृह्य गिरि शृंगाभम् मन्दरः सानुमान् इव || ४-३१-११

10. tataH shubha matiH = right, minded one; praaj~naH = well-informed one; bhraatuH priya hite rataH = brother's, agreeable, beneficial, bent on; prati sam rabdhaH = reversing, exasperation - swallowing his ire; kaala antaka upamaH = era, ender, in simile; such a; lakSmaNaH = Lakshmana; shakra baaNaasana prakhyam = Indra's, bow, identical with; giri shR^inga aabham = mountain, ridge, in shine with; dhanuH pragR^ihya = bow, wielding; mandaraH = Mt. Mandhara; saanu maan = one which has peaks - peaking mountain; iva = like; kapeH bhavanam jagaama = of monkey - Sugreeva 's, to palace, proceeded.

That right-minded and well-informed Lakshmana who is bent on doing only that which is agreeable and beneficial to his elder brother, then swallowing his exasperation and wielding a bow which is shining forth like the bow of Indra, and which is standing out like a peaking mountain proceeded towards the palace of the monkey, namely Sugreeva, and with such a bow he appeared to be the peaking Mt. Mandhara and like the Era-Ender. [4-31-10, 11]

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यथा उक्त कारी वचनम् उत्तरम् चैव स उत्तरम् |
बृहस्पति समो बुद्ध्या मत्त्वा रामानुजः तदा || ४-३१-१२
काम क्रोध समुत्थेन भ्रातुः कोपाग्निना वृतः |
प्रभंजन इव अप्रीतः प्रययौ लक्ष्मणः तदा || ४-३१-१३

12, 13. tadaa = then; yathaa ukta kaarii = as, said, doer - who does exactly what Rama tells - who does not defy Rama's words; raama anujaH = to Rama, later born one - younger brother, adherer; bhraatuH = brother's; kaama krodha samutthena = by desire, caused fury, fired up - of Rama; kopa agninaa vR^itaH = fury, fire, enwrapped in; buddhyaa bR^ihaspati samaH = by intelligence, Brihaspati [the planet, Gods'-mentor, Jupiter,] coequal with; such a; lakSmaNaH = Lakshmana; saha uttaram = of reply [of Sugreeva]; uttaram vacanam caiva = later words - counter-reply [by Lakshmana,] also thus; mattvaa = on mulling over; tadaa = then; prabhanjana iva = whirlwind, like; a priitaH = one who is - not, satisfied - embittered; prayayau = proceeded.

Lakshmana the non-defying adherer of Rama, a coequal of Brihaspati-Jupiter, in intelligence, then mulled over the exact words of Rama to be spoken to Sugreeva, possible reply of Sugreeva on them, and his own sensible counter-reply to them, enwrapped as he is in a furious fire fired up by the desire of Rama for Seetha, proceeded to Sugreeva's palace like an embittered whirlwind aided and abetted by a furious fire. [4-31-12, 13]

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साल ताल अश्व कर्णाम् च तरसा पातयन् बलात् |
पर्यस्यन् गिरि कूटानि द्रुमान् अन्याम् च वेगितः || ४-३१-१४
शिलाः च शकली कुर्वन् पद्भ्याम् गज इव आशु गः |
दूरम् एक पदम् त्यक्त्वा ययौ कार्यवशात् द्रुतम् || ४-३१-१५

14. aashu gaH gaja iva = fleetly, going, elephant, as with; vegitaH = he who is making haste; tarasaa = with his might; saala taala ashvakarNaam ca = Saala, Palm, Ashvakarna trees, also; paatayan = felling; anyaam drumaan ca = others, trees, also; on felling; giri kuuTaani = mountain, crests; balaat paryasyan = by strength, razing; padbhyaam shilaaH shakalii kurvan ca = with both feet, boulders, to splinters, rendering into, also; duuram eka padam - duuraam eka padiim = long, single, step - pathway / long, first foot; tyaktvaa = leaving off / on placing; kaarya vashaat drutam yayau = mission, impelled by, swiftly, proceeded.

While knocking down Saala, Palm, Ashvakarna trees with his might, razing mountain-crests and even other trees with his strength, splintering boulders underfoot, Lakshmana made haste through an enmeshed path leaving off one-foot-pathway as with an elephant striding fleetly, and proceeded swiftly impelled by the mission. [4-31-15]

The wording in the second foot is as per Chaukambha publication: duuraam eka padam tyaktvaa as in other publications, which then gives meaning 'leaving off a distant one-foot-pathway Lakshmana strode in a shortcut way through the thick of trees...' or duuram eka padiim tyaktvaa in another way 'releasing the first foot in a longer stride he made haste.' This is to show Lakshmana's vehemence and valour are better than that of Vanara-s, which was explained by the sage-poet at the time of creation of Vanara-s by celestials at 1-17-25 onwards. When Vanara-s can fell trees or volley the peaks of mountains with some effort, Lakshmana can do the same effortlessly.

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ताम् अपश्यत् बल आकीर्णाम् हरिराज महापुरीम् |
दुर्गाम् इक्ष्वाकु शार्दूलः किष्किंधाम् गिरि संकटे || ४-३१-१६

16. ikSvaaku shaarduulaH = in Ikshvaku dynasty, tigerly one; giri sankaTe = among mountains, entrenched in; bala aakiirNaam = with army, impregnated with; dur gaam = not, passable; hari raaja mahaa puriim = monkey, king's, magnificent, citadel; taam kiSkindhaam apashyat = at her, at Kishkindha, he saw.

Entrenched among mountains, impregnated with vanara-army is the magnificent citadel of the king of monkeys, and the tigerly-Ikshvaku, Lakshmana, has seen such an impassable city, namely Kishkindha. [4-31-16]

This is what Sugreeva told Rama when they come for second time to fight Vali 'Spread out by the snares of monkeys... [we arrived at gate of Kishkindha city...] [4-14-5]' thus Lakshmana again saw that impregnable Kishkindha, but with a different reception to him at this time.

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रोषात् प्रस्फुरमाण ओष्ठः सुग्रीवम् प्रति लक्ष्मणः |
ददर्श वानरान् भीमान् किष्किंधाया बहिः चरान् || ४-३१-१७

17. sugriivam prati = Sugreeva, towards; roSaat = owing to rancour; pra sphuramaaNa oSThaH = verily, quivering, lips - one with such lips; lakSmaNaH = Lakshmana; kiSkindhaayaa bahiH caraan = Kishkindha's, outer [at outposts,] that moving about; bhiimaan vaanaraan dadarsha = formidable, Vanara-s, has seen.

While his lips are quivering owing to rancour towards Sugreeva, Lakshmana saw formidable Vaanara-s at the outposts of Kishkindha. [4-31-17]

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तम् दृष्ट्वा वानराः सर्वे लक्ष्मणम् पुरुषर्षभम्
शैल शृंगाणि शतशः प्रवृद्धाम् च महीरुहान् |
जगृहुः कुंजर प्रख्या वानराः पर्वत अंतरे || ४-३१-१८

18. parvata antare = mountains, in midst - in gorges; kunjara prakhyaa = elephant, comparable [elephantine]; vaanaraaH = Vanara-s; puruSa rSabham tam lakshmaNam dR^iSTvaa = the best among men, him, at Lakshmana, on seeing; sarve vaanaraaH = all, vanara-s; shatashaH = hundreds of; shaila shR^ingaaNi = mountain, crests; pra vR^iddhaam mahii ruhaan ca = well, developed [gigantic,] on earth, grown - trees, also; jagR^ihuH = grabbed.

On seeing the most notable one among men, Lakshmana all of the elephantine vanara-s available in the gorges of mountain have grabbed hundreds of mountain-crests and gigantic trees, and they are at the ready. [4-31-18]

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तान् गृहीत प्रहरणान् सर्वान् दृष्ट्वा तु लक्ष्मणः |
बभूव द्विगुणम् क्रुद्धो बहु इंधन इव अनलः || ४-३१-१९

19. lakSmaNaH = Lakshmana; gR^ihiita praharaNaan = handling, assaultive [trees and peaks]; taan sarvaan dR^iSTvaa tu = them, at all of them, on seeing, but; bahu indhana analaH iva = with much fuel, [added,] fire, as with; dvi guNam kruddhaH = with two, fold, fury babhuuva = he became.

But on seeing all of them handling assaultive peaks and trees, Lakshmana's fury has become twofold as with a fire to which much fuel is added. [4-31-19]

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तम् ते भयपरीत अंगाः ख्सुब्धम् दृष्ट्वा प्लवंगमाः |
काल मृत्यु युगांताअभम् शतशो विद्रुता दिशः || ४-३१-२०

20. shatashaH te plavamgamaaH = hundreds [troops and troops of,] of those, fly-jumpers; kshubdham = who is overexcited; kaala mR^ityu = Time-god, of Death; yuga anta aabham = epoch, ender, in sheen; tam = at him, at Lakshmana; dR^iSTvaa = on seeing; bhaya pariita angaaH = with scare, enfolded - coiling, bodies; dishaH = to all - directions; vi drutaa = quickly, ran away.

On seeing overexcited Lakshmana who is like the Time-god and the Epoch-Ender, troops and troops of those fly-jumpers quickly fled away in all directions with scare coiling their bodies. [4-31-20]

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ततः सुग्रीव भवनम् प्रविश्य हरिपुंगवाः |
क्रोधम् आगमनम् चैव लक्ष्मणस्य न्यवेदयन् || ४-३१-२१

21. tataH hari pungavaaH = then, monkeys, the best of them; sugriiva bhavanam pravishya = Sugreeva's, palace, on entering; lakSmaNasya = Lakshmana's; aagamanam = about arrival; krodham caiva = about his fury, also thus; nyavedayan = submitted [appraised.]

Then on entering the palace of Sugreeva, some best ones among monkeys have appraised about the arrival of Lakshmana, and even about his fury. [4-31-21]

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तारया सहितः कामी सक्तः कपिवृषः तदा |
न तेषाम् कपि वीराणाम् शुश्राव वचनम् तदा || ४-३१-२२

22. tadaa = at that time; kaamii = who is in lustful [mood]; taarayaa sahitaH = Tara, in company of; rahaH saktaH = in privacy, enmired; such a; kapi vR^iSaH = monkey, the bullish one - foremost monkey - Sugreeva; teSaam kapi viiraaNaam = of those, monkey, bold ones'; vacanam = words; na shu shraava = not, clearly heard - unheedful of.

At that time, he who is in a lustful mood, who is in the company of Lady Tara and who is enmired in privacy, that foremost monkey Sugreeva is unheedful of the words of those bold monkeys who brought the message. [4-31-22]

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ततः सचिव संदिष्टा हरयो रोमहर्षणाः |
गिरि कुंजर मेघ आभा नगर्या निर्ययुः तदा || ४-३१-२३

23. tataH = then; roma harSaNaaH = hair, raisers - frightening in appearance ones; giri kunjara megha aabhaa = mountains, elephants, black-clouds, similar one in sheen; harayaH = monkeys; sachiva samdiSTaa = by ministers, directed [in order to ascertain the reason for Lakshmana's fury]; tadaa = then; nagaryaa nir yayuH = from city, out, gone.

Then, as directed by ministers of Kishkindha in order to figure out the mood of Lakshmana, some of the elephantine monkeys who are frightening just by their appearance, who in sheen are similar to mountains and dark-clouds have gone out of the city. [4-31-23]

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नख दंष्ट्र आयुधा सर्वे वीराः विकृत दर्शनाः |
सर्वे शार्दूल दर्पाः च सर्वे च विकृत आननाः || ४-३१-२४

24. sarve = all; viiraaH = brave ones; nakha damSTra aayudhaa = have nails, teeth, as weapons; vikR^ita darshanaaH = hideous, in look; sarve shaarduula darpaaH ca = all, tigerish, in pride, also; sarve vikR^ita aananaaH ca = all, horrendous, in face, also.

All of those brave vanara-s are armed with their own teeth and nails, all are with tigerish pride, all are hideous in look and horrendous by their faces. [4-31-24]

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दश नाग बलाः केचित् केचित् दश गुणोत्तराः |
केचित् नाग सहस्रस्य बभूवुः तुल्य वर्चसः || ४-३१-२५

25. kecit = some are; dasha naaga balaaH = ten, elephants, with might of, kecit dasha guNa uttaraaH = some, ten, times, more; kecit naaga sahasrasya = some, elephants, a thousand of; tulya varcasaH babhuuvuH = matching, in vigour, are there.

Some of those vanara-s are with the might of ten elephants, some ten times more, and some with vigour matching that of a thousand elephants. [4-31-25]

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ततः तैः कपिभिर् व्याप्ताम् द्रुम हस्तैर् महाबलैः |
अपश्यत् लक्ष्मणः क्रुद्धः किष्किंधाम् ताम् दुरासदम् || ४-३१-२६

26. tataH = then; kruddhaH lakSmaNaH = infuriated, Lakshmana; taiH = with them; druma hastaiH = trees, with hands [flaunting]; mahaabalaiH = great-mighty ones; kapibhiH vyaaptaam = with monkeys, spreading throughout; dur aasadam = not, assailable - city; taam kiSkindhaam apashyat = at her, Kishkindha, saw.

Infuriated Lakshmana has then seen Kishkindha, an unassailable city, as those great-mighty monkeys flaunting trees are spreading throughout it. [4-31-26]

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ततः ते हरयः सर्वे प्राकार परिख अंतरात् |
निष्क्रम्य उदग्र सत्त्वाः तु तस्थुर् आविष्कृतम् तदा || ४-३१-२७

27. tataH = then; ut agra sattvaaH = those with - up, risen, might - ebullient in sprit; sarve te harayaH = all of those, monkeys; praakaara parikha antaraat = compound-wall's, iron-latches [of gateway,] from inside; niSkramya = on exiting; tadaa aaviSkR^itam = then, unfolded - showing themselves, revealingly; tasthuH = stood up to.

All of those monkeys then exiting from the inside of the compound-wall of the castle and coming underneath of the iron-latches of the castle's gateway, they became visible and stood up to Lakshmana with their ebullient might. [4-31-27]

The word parigha  is sometimes taken as bastions of the fort-wall.

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सुग्रीवस्य प्रमादम् च पूर्वजस्य अर्थम् आत्मवान् |
दृष्ट्वा कोप वशम् वीरः पुनर् एव जगाम सः || ४-३१-२८

28. aatmavaan = sensible one; saH viiraH = that, valiant one; sugriivasya pramaadam ca = Sugreeva's, blunder, also; puurvajasya artham ca = elder brother's, expediency, also; dR^iSTvaa = on envisaging; punaH eva = again, thus; kopa vasham = into anger's, control; jagaama = went into.

On envisaging Sugreeva's blunder and of his elder-brother's expediency, that sensible one and fury restrained Lakshmana, again went into the restraint of fury on seeing the monkeys. [4-31-28]

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स दीर्घ उष्ण महा उच्छ्वासः कोप संरक्त लोचनः |
बभूव नर शार्दूल स धूम इव पावकः || ४-३१-२९

29. diirgha uSNa mahaa ucChvaasaH = long, fiery, endless, exhales; kopa samrakta locanaH = by fury, bloodshot, eyes; nara shaarduula = man, tiger; saH = he, Lakshmana sa dhuuma paavakaH iva = with, fumes, fire, like; babhuuva = is there.

With his long, fiery, and endless exhales and eyes bloodshot in fury, that tigerly-man Lakshmana is like a fuming fire. [4-31-29]

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बाण शल्य स्फुरत् जिह्वः सायक आसन भोगवान् |
स्व तेजो विष संघातः पंच आस्य इव पन्नगः || ४-३१-३०

30. baaNa shalya sphurat jihvaH = arrow, head, motile, tongue; saayaka aasana bhogavaan [bhogaH vaan] = arrows, seat [curvi-bow,] serpent-hood, wielder of; sva tejaH viSa sam ghaataH = by own, fervency, with venom, well, multiplied - proliferating; panca aasya pannagaH iva = five, faced, serpent, like [identical to.]

Lakshmana has become identical to a five-faced serpent as his curvi-bow looked like the curvi-hood of a serpent, arrowheads looked like the poking tongues of the serpent, and as his own fervency is proliferating as that serpent's venom. [4-31-30]

The words used in verse bhogavaan, samghaata also means 'enjoyer of bow, assortment of these aspects...' but bhoga is yet another name for 'snake-hood' besides its coils and ghaata is 'that which obtained after multiplication...'

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तम् दीप्तम् इव कालाग्निम् नागेन्द्रम् इव कोपितम् |
समासाद्य अंगदः त्रासात् विषादम् अगमत् परम् || ४-३१-३१

31. angadaH = Angada; diiptam kaala agnim iva = aglow, perdition, fire of, as with; kopitam naaga indram iva = [perforce] infuriated, serpent's, king, as with; tam = him - Lakshmana; samaasaadya = on nearing; traasaat param viSaadam agamat = by scare, high, sadness, he [Angada] succumbed to.

Angada succumbing to high despair caused by the scare neared Lakshmana who is aglow like the Fire of Perdition and like aadi seSa, the Thousand-hooded King of Serpents, who is perforce infuriated. [4-31-31]

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सो अंगदम् रोष ताम्राक्षः संदिदेश महायशाः |
सुग्रीवः कथ्यताम् वत्स मम आगमनम् इति उत || ४-३१-३२

32. roSa taamra akSaH = by rancour, reddened, eyed one; mahaayashaaH saH = highly adorable, he that Lakshmana; angadam = to Angada; vatsa = oh, boy; sugriivaH mama aagamanam kathyataam = let Sugreeva, about my, arrival, be told; iti uta = thus, this way - said; samdidesha = sent a word.

With his eyes reddened in rancour that highly adorable Lakshmana sent a word through Angada, saying "oh, boy, let Sugreeva be informed about my arrival," and said this way. [4-31-32]

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एष रामानुजः प्राप्तः त्वत् सकाशम् अरिन्दमः |
भ्रातुर् व्यसन संतप्तो द्वारि तिष्ठति लक्ष्मणः || ४-३१-३३
तस्य वाक्यम् यदि रुचिः क्रियताम् साधु वानरः |
इति उक्त्वा शीघ्रम् आगच्छ वत्स वाक्यम् अरिन्दम || ४-३१-३४

33. arindama = oh, enemy-destroyer; vatsa = oh boy - Angada; you say this to Sugreeva; arindamaH = oh, enemy-destroyer - Sugreeva; bhraatuH vyasana santaptaH = brother's - Rama's, distress, distressed by; raama anujaH = Rama's brother; eSa lakSmaNaH = this one, Lakshmana; tvat sakaasham = to your, fore; praaptaH = having arrived; dvaari tiSThati at door, abiding - waiting; vaanaraH = oh, Vanara [Sugreeva]; ruciH yadi = interest, if - if you are interested; tasya vaakyam = his [Lakshmana's,] words - advise; saadhu kriyataam = nicely, be done - listen to it; iti vaakyam uktvaa = thus, words, on saying; shiighram aa gacCha = quickly, come and go [come back.]

"Oh, enemy-destroyer Angada, oh, boy, you may say these words to Sugreeva, 'oh, enemy-destroyer Sugreeva, distressed by the distress of his brother this Lakshmana has arrived in your presence and waiting at the door, oh, Sugreeva, the vanara, if you are interested it will be apt of you to listen to his advise, either by coming here or inviting him inside...' saying so oh, boy Angada, you comeback quickly." Thus Lakshmana spoke to Angada. [4-31-33, 34]

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लक्ष्मणस्य वचः श्रुत्वा शोकाविष्टो अंगदो अब्रवीत् |
पितुः समीपम् आगम्य सौमित्रिः अयम् आगतः || ४-३१-३५

35. lakSmaNasya vacaH shrutvaa = Lakshmana's, word, on hearing; shoka aaviSTaH = in grief, muffled up; angadaH = Angada; pituH samiipam aagamya = to father's, near, on arriving; ayam saumitriH aagataH = he, Soumitri, has come; abraviit = spoke informed.

On hearing the words of Lakshmana Angada is muffled up in grief, and on arriving in the presence of his father Sugreeva he informed "Soumitri has come." [4-31-35]

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अथ अंगदः तस्य सुतीव्र वाचा
संभ्रांत भावः परिदीन वक्त्रः |
निर्गत्य पूर्वम् नृपतेः तरस्वी
ततो रुमायाः चरणौ ववन्दे || ४-३१-३६

36. atha = then; tarasvii angadaH = mighty one, Angada; tasya = his, Lakshmana's; su tiivra vaacaa = by very, sharp, words; sambhraanta bhaavaH = bewildered, in perception; pari diina vaktraH = over, sadness, on face - assuming a very sad face; nir gatya = out, going - exiting for the palace; puurvam nR^ipateH = firstly, to king's [Sugreeva's]; tataH rumaayaaH = then, to Ruma's; caraNau vavande = feet, saluted.

Bewildered in his perception at the very sharp words of Lakshmana, mighty Angada then has gone to the palace assuming a very sad face, and there he firstly saluted the feet of his father Sugreeva and then at the feet of Ruma, wife of Sugreeva. [4-31-36]

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संगृह्य पादौ पितुः उग्रतेजा
जग्राह मातुः पुनर् एव पादौ |
पादौ रुमायाः च निपीडयित्वा
निवेदयामास ततः तत् अर्थम् || ४-३१-३७

37. ugra tejaa = one with intense, vitality [Angada]; pituH paadau sam gR^ihya = father's, feet, on clinching to; punaH eva = later, thus; maatuH paadau jagraaha = mother's [Tara's,] feet, took; rumaayaaH paadau ca = of Ruma, feet, also - on clasping; nipiiDayitvaa = squeezing [latching on to]; tat artham = about that, import [about the message of Lakshmana]; tataH nivedayaamaasa = then, started to appeal.

Angada whose vitality is intense clinched himself to the feet of his father Sugreeva, and later clung to the feet of his mother Tara, and he even clasped the feet of his paternal-aunt Ruma, and latching on to the feet of his parents then he stated to appeal to them about the message of Lakshmana. [4-31-37]

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स निद्रा मद संवीतो वानरो न विबुद्धवान् |
बभूव मद मत्तः च मदनेन च मोहितः || ४-३१-३८

38. nidraa mada samviitaH = with drowsiness, dizziness, bound up in; saH vaanaraH = he, Vanara - Sugreeva; na vi buddhavaan = not, verily, comprehend; mada mattaH ca = by intoxication, benumbed, also; madanena ca mohitaH = with lust, also - in its torpor, bemused [numbed down]; babhuuva = he became.

Sugreeva, the vanara, who is bound up in drowsiness and dizziness could not comprehend clearly what Angada is talking about, as he is benumbed with intoxication, and even numbed down with the torpor of lustfulness. [4-31-38]

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ततः किल किलाम् चक्रुः लक्ष्मणम् प्रेक्ष्य वानराः |
प्रसादयन्तः तम् क्रुद्धम् भय मोहित चेतसः || ४-३१-३९

39. tataH = then; kruddham lakshmaNam prekshya = infuriated - on the warpath, Lakshmana, on seeing; vaanaraaH = monkeys - who are around Lakshmana; bhaya mohita cetasaH = with fear, flustered, at hearts; tam = him - Lakshmana; prasaadayantaH = so as to appease him; kila kilaam cakruH = sounds like kila, kila [jibber-jabber,] they made.

The hearts of mobbing monkeys are flustered with fear when they pored over infuriated Lakshmana, thus they jibber-jabbered so as to appease him. [4-31-39]

The words kila kila, hala hala  are the onomatopoeic words for the chatter of monkeys or hues and cries of others. - A Linguistic Study of Ramayana, Pt. Satya Vrat.

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ते महा ओघ निभम् दृष्ट्वा वज्र अशनि सम स्वनम् |
सिंह नादम् समम् चक्रुर् लक्ष्मणस्य समीपतः || ४-३१-४०

40. te = they - monkeys; dR^iSTvaa = on observing - Lakshmana; mahaa ogha nibham = stormy, torrent, similar to; vajra ashani sama svanam = thunderbolt's, thunder, similar, din - hubbub; simha naadam = lion's, roar; samam = instantly; lakSmaNasya samiipataH = of Lakshmana, nearby; cakruH = they made.

And those monkeys on observing Lakshmana instantly raised a hubbub at his nearby that is similar to a storm of a torrent, thunder of a thunderbolt, and the roar of a lion. [4-31-40]

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तेन शब्देन महता प्रत्यबुध्यत वानरः |
मद विह्वल ताम्राक्षो व्याकुल स्रग्वि भूषणः || ४-३१-४१

41. mahataa tena shabdena = uproarious, by that, noise; vaanaraH = Vanara - Sugreeva; mada vihvala taamra akSaH = by stupor, out of control [unable to open eyelids widely, helter-skelter] with coppery, eyed; vyaakula sragvi bhuuSaNaH = topsy-turvy, garlands, ornaments; pratyabudhyata = came to senses.

With that uproarious noise of monkeys Sugreeva came to his senses, but because of stupor his coppery eyes are helter-skelter and his garlands and ornaments are topsy-turvy. [4-31-41]

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अथ अंगद वचः श्रुत्वा तेन एव च समागतौ |
मंत्रिणो वानरेन्द्रस्य सम्मत उदार दर्शिनौ || ४-३१-४२
प्लक्षः च एव प्रभावः च मंत्रिणौ अर्थ धर्मयोः |
वक्तुम् उच्चावचम् प्राप्तम् लक्ष्मणम् तौ शशंसतुः || ४-३१-४३

42. atha angada vacaH shrutvaa = then, Angada's, words, on hearing; tena eva ca sam aagatau = with him [with Angada,] thus, also, well, came with; sam mata udaara darshinau = agreeable, in thought [advise,] appreciable, in their aspect; mantriNau = two ministers; plakSaH ca eva prabhaavaH ca = Plaksha, also, thus, Prabhava, also; tau = those two; mantriNaH vaanara indrasya = ministers, of Vanara, king; lakSmaNam = Lakshmana; artha dharmayoH = prosperity, probity; uccaavacam vaktum = variously, to discuss; praaptam = has come; shashamsatuH = apprised.

On hearing the words of Angada two ministers who are agreeable in their advice and appreciable in their aspect have come along with him, and those two ministers of the king of vanara-s, namely Plaksha and Prabhava, have appraised Sugreeva that Lakshmana has arrived to discuss variously about the prosperity and probity. [4-31-42, 43]

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प्रसादयित्वा सुग्रीवम् वचनैः स अर्थ निश्चितैः |
आसीनम् पर्युपासीनौ यथा शक्रम् मरुत्पतिम् || ४-३१-४४

44. aasiinam sugriivam = who is sitting, Sugreeva; marut patim shakram yathaa = wind-gods', king, Indra, as with; pari upa asiinau = [ministers,] around, nearby, sitting; sa artha nishcitaiH vacanaiH = with meaning, expressive, words; prasaadayitvaa = on appeasing; and they spoke to Sugreeva as below.

Those two ministers sitting around and nearby Sugreeva, who is seated like the king of wind-gods, namely Indra, on appeasing him with meaningful and expressive words they spoke to him in this way. [4-31-44]

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सत्य संधौ महाभागौ भ्रातरौ राम लक्ष्मणौ |
वयस्य भावम् संप्राप्तौ राज्य अर्हौ राज्य दायिनौ || ४-३१-४५

45. satya sandhau = those by truth, abided; mahaa bhaagau = highly, providential; raajya arhau = kingdom, worthy of; raajya daayinau = kingdom, bestowers; bhraatarau raama lakSmaNau = brothers, Rama, Lakshmana; vayasya bhaavam sampraaptau = friendship, disposition, secured - they have become your true friends.

"Rama and Lakshmana are the brothers who abide by truth, highly-providential, and though they are worthy enough to rule kingdom for themselves they have bestowed the kingdom to you, such as they are, they have become your true friends." Thus started the ministers to say to Sugreeva. [4-31-45]

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तयोः एको धनुष्पाणिर् द्वारि तिष्ठति लक्ष्मणः |
यस्य भीताः प्रवेपन्ते नादान् मुंचन्ति वानराः || ४-३१-४६

46. tayoH ekaH = of them two, one; lakSmaNaH = Lakshmana; dhanuS paaNiH = bow, in hand - at loggerheads; dvaari tiSThati = door, staying; yasya bhiitaaH = by whom, panicked; pra vepante = utterly, shuddering [monkeys]; vaanaraaH naadaan muncanti = monkeys, alarms, giving vent to.

"One among those two, Lakshmana, is biding at the door wielding his bow, by whom the monkeys are panicked and venting out alarms shuddering utterly. [4-31-46]

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स एष राघव भ्राता लक्ष्मणो वाक्य सारथिः |
व्यवसाय रथः प्राप्तः तस्य रामस्य शासनात् || ४-३१-४७

47. tasya raamasya shaasanaat = by his, Rama's, decree; raaghava bhraataa = Raghava's, brother; saH eSa lakSmaNaH = he, this, Lakshmana; vaakya saarathiH = word [of Rama,] as charioteer; vyavasaaya rathaH = endeavour, as chariot; praaptaH = has come.

"This Lakshmana, the brother of Raghava, has arrived here at the decree of Rama on the chariot called his 'endeavour', charioted by the charioteer called 'the word of Rama.' [4-31-47]

This is 'a case of delightful figurative use' of the word vaakya saaradhi 'Rama's word as charioteer...' meaning 'directed by Rama's word...' - Ramayana A Linguistic Study, Pt. Satya Vrat.

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अयम् च तनयो राजन् ताराया दयितो अंगदः |
लक्ष्मणेन सकाशम् ते प्रेषितः त्वरया अनघ || ४-३१-४८

48. anagha = oh, merited one; raajan = oh, king; taaraayaa dayitaH tanayaH = Tara's, loving, son; ayam angadaH = this, Angada; lakshmaNena tvarayaa = by Lakshmana, hastily; te sakaasham preSitaH = to your, presence, is ushered.

"Oh, merited one, even Lakshmana has ushered this Angada hastily, oh, king, the precious son of Tara, to your presence. [4-31-48]

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सः अयम् रोष परीताक्षो द्वारि तिष्ठति वीर्यवान् |
वानरान् वानरपते चक्षुसा निर्दहन इव || ४-३१-४९

49. vaanara pate = oh, monkeys, king of; viiryavaan = brave one; saH ayam = such as he is; Lakshmana; roSa pariita akshaH = rancour, awning, with eyes; cakshusaa vaanaraan nir dahana iva = with eyes, monkeys, to burn down, as if; dvaari tiSThati = at door, standing - sticking fast.

"Oh, king of monkeys, such as he is, that brave Lakshmana is sticking fast at the door with an awning of rancour on his eyes and as if to burn down the monkeys just with his eyes. [4-31-49]

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तस्य मूर्ध्ना प्रणम्य त्वम् स पुत्र सह बान्धवः |
गच्छ शीघ्रम् महाराज रोषो हि अद्य उपशम्यताम् || ४-३१-५०

50. mahaaraaja = oh, great-king; tvam = you; sa putra saha baandhavaH = with, son, with, relatives; shiighram gacCha = quickly, you go; muurdhnaa tasya praNamya = with forehead - bowing down, to him, on revering; adya roSaH upashamyataam hi = now, Lakshmana's - bitterness, be pacified, indeed.

"You may approach him quickly along with your son and relatives, oh, great-king, prostrate yourself before him holding him in reverence, and thus let his bitterness be indeed pacified now. [4-31-50]

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यथा आह रामो धर्मात्मा तत् कुरुष्व समाहितः |
राजन् तिष्ठ स्व समये भव सत्य प्रतिश्रवः || ४-३१-५१

51. raajan = oh, king; dharmaatmaa raamaH = virtue-souled, Rama; yat aaha = what, he is saying - whatever he says; tat samaahitaH kuruSva = that, wholeheartedly, you implement; satya pratishravaH tiSTha = forthrightness, of promise, you abide; sva samaye bhava = in your own, pact, stand by it.

"Whatever that virtue-souled Rama says that you have to implement wholeheartedly, oh, king, you abide by the forthrightness of your promise, stick up for the pact you made." Thus the ministers advised Sugreeva. [4-31-51]

- - -

इति वाल्मीकि रामायणे आदि काव्ये किष्किन्ध काण्डे एक त्रिंश सर्गः

Thus, this is the 31st chapter in Kishkindha Kanda of Valmiki Ramayana, the First Epic poem of India.

Verse Locator for Book IV : Kishkindha Kanda - The Empire of Holy Monkeys : Chapter 31

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© June, 2002, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised : August 04]

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