Sugreeva is disturbed at the unfounded anger of Lakshmana and wanted his ministers to elicit the cause for that anger. Hanuma informs Sugreeva that causing delay is the only fault of Sugreeva, for which Sugreeva is advised to pray for the mercy of Lakshmana personally.
अंगदस्य वचः श्रुत्वा सुग्रीवः सचिवैः सह |
लक्ष्मणम् कुपितम् श्रुत्वा मुमोच आसनम् आत्मवान् || ४-३२-१
1. aatmavaan sugriivaH = sensible one, Sugreeva; sacivaiH saha = ministers [others like Hanuma, apart from Plaksha, Prabhava,] along with; angadasya vacaH shrutvaa = Angada's, words, on hearing; lakSmaNam kupitam shrutvaa = Lakshmana, as angered one, on hearing - on knowing; aasanam mumoca = seat, released - got up from seat.
On hearing the words of Angada along with those of his ministers, namely Hanuma, Plaksha, and Prabhava et al, also on knowing that Lakshmana is angered, that sensible Sugreeva stirred from seat. [4-32-1]
स च तान् अब्रवीत् वाक्यम् निश्चित्य गुरु लाघवम् |
मंत्रज्ञान् मंत्र कुशलो मंत्रेषु परिनिष्ठितः || ४-३२-२
2. mantra kushalaH = in strategy, an expert; mantreSu pariniSThitaH = in strategies, diligent one; saH = he, Sugreeva; guru laaghavam = weightiness, lightness [pros and cons]; nishcitya = on discriminating; mantraj~naan = to strategists [to ministers]; taan vaakyam abraviit = to them, sentence, spoke.
On discriminating the pros and cons Sugreeva spoke this sentence to the strategist-ministers, for he himself is an expert in strategies and a diligent one in carrying out those strategies. [4-32-2]
न मे दुर् व्याहृतम् किंचित् न अपि मे दुर् अनुष्ठितम् |
लक्ष्मणो राघव भ्राता क्रुद्धः किम् इति चिंतये || ४-३२-३
3. me = to me - by me; kimcit = in the least; na dur vyaahR^itam = not, ill, spoken; me = by me; dur anuSThitam api = evil, undertaken, even; na = is not there; raaghava bhraataa lakSmaNaH = Raghava's, brother, Lakshmana; kim kruddhaH = why, angered - take offence; iti cintaye = thus, it is being thought - by me.
"I have not in the least spoken any ill of them, nor committed any misdeed in their respect, thus I am thinking why should Raghava's brother Lakshmana take offence at me? [4-32-3]
असुहृद्भिः मम अमित्रैः नित्यम् अन्तर दर्शिभिः |
मम दोषान् असंभूतान् श्रावितो राघवानुजः || ४-३२-४
4. raaghava anujaH = Raghava's, younger brother is; a su hR^idbhiH = un, kind, hearted ones - by unsympathetic rivals; who; nityam = always; antara darshibhiH = for scope, searchers - by opportunists, fabricators; mama = my; a mitraiH = un, friendly ones - rivals; mama = my; a sambhuutaan = non, existent - fabricated; doSaan = faults; shraavitaH = made to listen - ear-filled.
"Unsympathetic rivals of mine, who will always be snoopy for scope, might have ear-filled Raghava's brother about the fabricated faults of mine. [4-32-4]
अत्र तावत् यथा बुद्धि सर्वैः एव यथा विधि |
भावस्य निश्चयः तावत् विज्ञेयो निपुणम् शनैः || ४-३२-५
5. atra = in here - in this situation; taavat = on your part; sarvaiH eva = by you all, thus; yathaa buddhi = according to, [your] perspective; yathaa vidhi = according to, proper way - meticulously; bhaavasya = attitude [of Lakshmana, or, issue of fact]; nishcayaH = determination; nipuNam = diligently; shanaiH = steadily; vij~neyaH taavat = find out, firstly.
"In this situation, all of you on your part and according to your perspectives have to find out firstly and meticulously about the attitude of Lakshmana, along with a steady but diligent determination thereof. [4-32-5]
न खलु अस्ति मम त्रासो लक्ष्मणान् न अपि राघवात् |
मित्रम् तु अस्थान कुपितम् जनयति एव संभ्रमम् || ४-३२-६
6. mama = to me; lakSmaNaat = from Lakshmana; traasaH na asti khalu = scare, not, is there, definitely; raaghavaat api na = from Raghava even, no; a sthaana = not, founded - unfounded / out of context; kupitam = one who is provoked, angered; mitram tu = friend, but; sambhramam janayati eva = disquiet, giving rise to, alone.
"Definitely there is no fear for me from Lakshmana, not even from Raghava, but an unfounded ire of a friend alone is giving rise to disquiet. [4-32-6]
The word a + sthaana kupitam - a + sthaana kopam, is twofold in its meaning, one is 'unfounded anger' and the other is 'angered out of place, context.' Lakshmana who has so far not visited Kishkindha has darted into Kishkindha and showing his ire here, which is out of context. Lakshmana should have summoned Sugreeva or any other monkey, or he should have come as a calm and collected emissary, and then he can become ireful if Sugreeva rejects any help. But Lakshmana's entry itself is 'unfounded or unreasonable.' This one statement of Sugreeva makes him lofty of virtue in his heart of hearts for he reposed full confidence in Rama and thus fearless of a trusted friend.
सर्वथा सुकरम् मित्रम् दुष्करम् प्रतिपालनम् |
अनित्यत्वात् तु चित्तानाम् प्रीतिः अल्पे अपि भिद्यते || ४-३२-७
7. sarvathaa = in any way; mitram = a friend is; su karam = easy, to make - easy to befriended; prati paalanam = in turn, to manage; duS karam = not, practicable; cittaanaam = hearts, sentiments; a nityatvaat tu = not, permanent [impermanency, transient nature,] owing to; alpe api = in a trifle, even; priitiH bhidyate = friendliness, splits off.
"It is always practicable to befriend any, but in turn it is impracticable to manage that friendship, even a trifle splits off that friendliness for sentiments are transient. [4-32-7]
अतो निमित्तम् त्रस्तो अहम् रामेण तु महात्मना |
यन् मम उपकृतम् शक्यम् प्रतिकर्तुम् न तन् मया || ४-३२-८
8. ataH nimittam = on that, score, aham = I am; mahaatmanaa raameNa tu = from noble-souled, Rama, but; trastaH = flustering; mama = to me; yat upakR^itam = which, favour is made; tat mayaa = for that, by me; prati kartum = to requite; na shakyam = not, possible.
"On that score I am flustering because of the noble-souled Rama, and I cannot possibly requite the favour that has been done to me." So said Sugreeva to his ministers. [4-32-8]
सुग्रीवेण एवम् उक्ते तु हनुमान् हरि पुंगवः |
उवाच स्वेन तर्केण मध्ये वानर मंत्रिणाम् || ४-३२-९
9. sugriiveNa evam ukte tu = by Sugreeva, that way, while being said, but; hari pungavaH hanumaan = among monkey's, eminent one, Hanuma; vaanara mantriNaam madhye = Vanara, ministers, among; svena tarkeNa = with his own, by logic [with a dint of his expediency]; uvaaca = spoke.
While Sugreeva is saying that way, the eminent-monkey Hanuma spoke with a dint of his own expediency, from among the Vanara ministers. [4-32-9]
सर्वथा न एतद् आश्चर्यम् यत् त्वम् हरिगणेश्वर |
न विस्मरसि सुस्निग्धम् उपकारम् कृतम् शुभम् || ४-३२-१०
10. hari gaNa iishvara = oh, monkey, troops, lord of; tvam = you; su snigdham = with deep regard; kR^itam shubham upakaaram = rendere, advantageous, help; [or, upakaara kR^itam = help, who has rendered - Rama]; na vismarasi = not, forgetting; iti yat = that which point is there; etat = that point; sarvathaa aashcaryam na = in any way, astonishing, it is not.
"In any case, it is not astonishing to say, oh, king of monkey troops, that you with a deep regard have not forgotten the advantageous help rendered to you, since it is natural for you. [4-32-10]
राघवेण तु वीरेण भयम् उत्सृज्य दूरतः |
त्वत् प्रिय अर्थम् हतो वाली शक्र तुल्य पराक्रमः || ४-३२-११
11. viireNa raaghaveNa tu = by braving, Raghava, on his part; bhayam duurataH utsR^ijya = [his] fear, distantly, tossing away; tvat priya artham = your, cherish, to fulfil; shakra tulya paraakramaH = Indra, coequal, in valour; hataH vaalii = Vali, killed.
"On his part Raghava tossed off his fear distantly and eliminated Vali, whose valour equals that of Indra, only to fulfil your cherish. [4-32-11]
सर्वथा प्रणयात् क्रुद्धो राघवो न अत्र संशयः |
भ्रातरम् संप्रहितवान् लक्ष्मणम् लक्ष्मि वर्धनम् || ४-३२-१२
12. raaghavaH = Raghava is; sarvathaa praNayaat kruddhaH = anywise, in friendliness, is annoyed; atra samshayaH na = in that, doubt, is not there; bhraataram lakSmi vardhanam lakSmaNam = brother, prosperity, enhancer, Lakshmana; sam prahitavaan = he [Rama] expedited.
"Anywise, by virtue of his friendliness with you Raghava must be annoyed, hence he must have expedited his brother Lakshmana, whose disposition in effect to is enhance prosperity. [4-32-12]
त्वम् प्रमत्तो न जानीषे कालम् कलविदाम् वर |
फुल्ल सप्त च्छद श्यामा प्रवृत्ता तु शरत् शिवा || ४-३२-१३
13. kala vidaam vara = among time, knowers - a timekeeper, [a person as regards punctuality,] the best; tvam pra mattaH = you were, verily, - on the moon, ecstatic; kaalam na jaaniiSe = [about the slippage of] time, not, aware; phulla sapta cChada shyaamaa = unfolded, seven-leaved, covering [canopying seven-leaved-plantain trees,] with dark-greenness; shivaa sharat tu = sedate, autumn, on its part; pravR^ittaa = is underway.
"You have become ecstatic, oh, the best of the best timekeepers, hence you are unaware of the slippage of time, but the sedate and dark-green autumn on its part is underway unfolding dark-green leaves canopying seven-leaved banana plants. [4-32-13]
Sugreeva is ascribed as a great disciplinarian and punctualist and his order sugriiva aaj~na ' Sugreeva's order...' a Sanskrit phrase still ruling high, is an inalienable, do-or-die order for the rank and file of Vanara-s.
निर्मल ग्रह नक्षत्रा द्यौः प्रनष्ट बलाहका |
प्रसन्नाः च दिशः सर्वाः सरितः च सरांसि च || ४-३२-१४
13. pranaSTa balaahakaa dyauH = with extinct, clouds, sky is; nirmala graha nakSatraa = clear, with planets, stars; sarvaaH dishaH ca = all, directions, also, are clear; saritaH ca saraamsi ca = rivers, also, lakes, too; prasannaaH = are equable.
"Clear is the sky with its planets and stars as clouds have vanished on it, even all the ten directions are clear, and the rivers and lakes too are equable. [4-32-14]
प्राप्तम् उद्योग कालम् तु न अवैषि हरिपुंगव |
त्वम् प्रमत्त इति व्यक्तम् लक्ष्मणो अयम् इह आगतः || ४-३२-१५
15. hari pungava = oh, among monkeys, ablest one; praaptam udyoga kaalam tu = chanced, campaign, time, but; na avaiSi = not, you realised - not got the drift of it; tvam pra matta = you are, verily, slumberous; iti = thus as; ayam lakSmaNaH iha aagataH = this one, Lakshmana, to here, came; vyaktam = it is obvious.
"Because the time for campaigns has chanced, oh, the ablest monkey, and because you were very slumberous you have not got the drift of it, as such Lakshmana must have come here, and it is obvious. [4-32-15]
आर्तस्य हृत दारस्य परुषम् पुरुष अन्तरात् |
वचनम् मर्षणीयम् ते राघवस्य महात्मनः || ४-३२-१६
16. aartasya = one who is anguished; hR^ita daarasya = abducted, whose wife is; mahaatmanaH = benevolent-souled one - magnanimous in giving kingdom; raaghavasya = of such a Raghava; puruSa antaraat = [through] person, another one - thru Lakshmana; paruSam vacanam = [sent] bitter, words; te marSaNiiyam = to you, tolerable - endurable.
"Raghava's bitter words are endurable by you as he is primarily an anguished person, further he is the one whose is wife is abducted, and furthermore he is magnanimous in giving kingdom to you, besides, he is reproachful through another person, namely Lakshmana. [4-32-16]
कृत अपराधस्य हि ते न अन्यत् पश्यामि अहम् क्षमम् |
अंतरेण अंजलिम् बद्ध्वा लक्ष्मणस्य प्रसादनात् || ४-३२-१७
17. anjalim baddhvaa = palms, adjoining; lakSmaNasya prasaadanaat = of Lakshmana, seeking appeasement -pardon; antareNa = other than; kSamam = appropriate; anyat = another [means]; kR^ita aparaadhasya = one who committed, a blunder; te = to you; aham na pashyaami hi = I, do not, foresee, indeed.
"Indeed, I do not foresee any other appropriate means for you, as a blunder is committed by you, other than seeking Lakshmana's pardon duly adjoining your palms. [4-32-17]
The clasping and adjoining of palms in supplication is the highest gesture to appease others and it yields beneficence of even gods quickly. an~jaliH paramaa mudraa kshipram deva prasaadinii'Adjoining palms reverently is the highest gesture, and gods will bestow grace by it.' Here it is said in singular meaning that 'you appease Lakshmana single-mindedly... soulfully...'
नियुक्तैः मंत्रिभिः वाच्यो अवश्यम् पार्थिवो हितम् |
इत एव भयम् त्यक्त्वा ब्रवीमि अवधृतम् वचः || ४-३२-१८
18. niyuktaiH mantribhiH = designated ones, by ministers; paarthivaH = king; avashyam hitam vaacyaH = without hesitation, beneficial, is to be spoken - advised; ita eva = that is, why; bhayam tyaktvaa = fear, discarding; avadhR^itam vacaH braviimi = emphatic - which I hold fast, words, I am saying.
"A king is to be advised beneficially and unhesitatingly by the minister designates, that is why I am speaking what I hold fast discarding fear. [4-32-18]
अभिक्रुद्धः समर्थो हि चापम् उद्यम्य राघवः |
स देव असुर गंधर्वम् वशे स्थापयितुम् जगत् || ४-३२-१९
19. abhikruddhaH = [if] highly infuriated; raaghavaH caapam udyamya = Raghava, on hitching up, bow; sa deva asura gandharvam = along with, gods, demons, gandharva-s; jagat = world; vashe sthaapayitum samarthaH hi = in control, to keep, capable, isn't it.
"If Raghava is highly infuriated he is capable to keep the world under his control along with gods, demons, gandharva-s just on hitching up his bow, isn't it! [4-32-19]
न स क्षमः कोपयितुम् यः प्रसाद्य पुनर् भवेत् |
पूर्व उपकारम् स्मरता कृतज्ञेन विशेषतः || ४-३२-२०
20. puurva upakaaram smarataa = earlier, beneficence, remembering; visheSataH kR^itaj~nena = especially, as one beholden to him; such as you are, by you; yaH = he who is - Rama; punaH prasaadya = [time and ] again, who is to be placated; saH = he; kopayitum = to be infuriated; na kSamaH bhavet = not, seemly, it becomes.
"It becomes unseemly to infuriate him who is to be placated time and again, especially when remembering his earlier beneficence to you and when you are beholden to him. [4-32-20]
तस्य मूर्ध्ना प्रणम्य त्वम् स पुत्रः स सुहृत् जनः |
राजन् तिष्ठ स्व समये भर्तुः भार्या इव तत् वशे || ४-३२-२१
21. raajan = oh, king; sa putraH sa su hR^it janaH = along with, son, with, kind, hearted, people [friends and relatives]; tvam = you; tasya = to him; muurdhnaa praNamya = with forehead, pay deference - prostrate yourself; sva samaye = in your own, accord; you stay; like; bhartuH bhaaryaa iva = for husband, wife, as with; tat vashe tiSTha = in his, control, you stay - remain under his auspices.
"Prostrate yourself before him along with your son, friends and relatives to pay deference, oh, king, and abide by your own accord you made with him remaining under his auspices, like a wife abiding in the care of her husband. [4-32-21]
न राम रामानुज शासनम् त्वया
कपीन्द्र युक्तम् मनसा अपि अपोहितुम् |
मनो हि ते ज्ञास्यति मानुषम् बलम्
स राघवस्य अस्य सुरेन्द्र वर्चसः || ४-३२-२२
22. kapiindra = oh, monkeys, king; raama raama anuja shaasanam = Rama's, Rama's, brother's, ruling; tvayaa = by you; manasaa api = at heart, even - even in imagination; apohitum = to set aside - keep it at bay, fend off; na yuktam = not, seemly; saH raaghavasya = together with, the legatee of Raghu - here, Lakshmana; surendra varcasaH = king of gods, Indra, having resplendence; asya = his, Rama's; maanuSam balam = humanly, tenacity [keeping a firm hold of principles, life]; te manaH j~naasyati hi = your, heart, knows it, isn't it.
"It will be unseemly to fend off the ruling of Rama, or of his brother Lakshmana even in your imagination, oh, king of monkeys, as your heart is aware of the humanly tenacity of that Rama, whose resplendence vies with that of Indra, and who is associated with selfsame Lakshmana, isn't it." Thus Hanuma spoke to Sugreeva. [4-32-22]
For the usage of words maanuSam balam it is said as 'his humanly adventures are already known to you, yet his divine expeditions are to be known by you.'
- - -
इति वाल्मीकि रामायणे आदि काव्ये किष्किन्ध काण्डे द्वा त्रिंशः सर्गः
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© July, 2002, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised : August 04]
lakshmana and verse
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