Book IV : Kishkindha Kanda - The Empire of Holy Monkeys

Chapter [Sarga] 35
Verses converted to UTF-8, Nov 09


Tara appeases Lakshmana and reasons with him about the delay, which is held as delay by Rama, but in actuality it is the preparatory time lag. She gives an account o Ravana's forces that cannot be countered without proper assistance of Vanara military. She informs Lakshmana that all the Vanara forces are mobilized and they present themselves before Rama on this very day.

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तथा ब्रुवाणम् सौमित्रिम् प्रदीप्तम् इव तेजसा |
अब्रवीत् लक्ष्मणम् तारा तारा अधिप निभ आनना || ४-३५-१

1. tathaa bruvaaNam = then, who is speaking; tejasaa pra diiptam iva = with his resplendence, highly, blazing, as though; saumitrim = to Sumitra's son; lakSmaNam = to Lakshmana; taaraa adhipa nibha aananaa = stars', lord's [moon,] in shine, faced one; taaraa abraviit = Tara, spoke.

Tara with her visage that shines like the Lord of Stars, namely the Moon, then spoke to the son of queen Sumitra, namely Lakshmana, who while he is speaking is as though blazing with his own resplendence. [4-35-1]

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न एवम् लक्ष्मण वक्तव्यो न अयम् परुषम् अर्हति |
हरीणाम् ईश्वरः श्रोतुम् तव वक्त्रात् विशेषतः || ४-३५-२

2. lakSmaNa = oh, Lakshmana; ayam = this; hariiNaam iishvaraH = for monkeys, king - Sugreeva; evam na vaktavyaH = this way, not, speakable - addressed; visheSataH = especially; tava vaktraat = from your, mouth [tongue]; paruSam = harsh - words, tongue-lashing; shrotum na arhati = [he] to listen, not, apt - not the right one.

"Let not this king of monkeys be addressed in this way, oh, Lakshmana, and he is not warranted to listen such tongue-lashing, especially from your tongue. [4-35-2]

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न एव अकृतज्ञः सुग्रीवो न शठो न अपि दारुणः |
न एव अनृत कथो वीर न जिह्मः च कपीश्वरः || ४-३५-३

3. viira = = oh, brave Lakshmana; kapiishvaraH sugriivaH = monkey-king, Sugreeva; a kR^itaj~naH na = un, thankful, he is not; shaThaH na = treacherous, not; daaruNaH api na = iniquitous one, not; a nR^ita kathaH = un, truth, utterer; na eve = not, even; jihmaH ca na = duplicitous, also, not.

"Sugreeva is not an unthankful one, oh, brave Lakshmana, a treacherous one - no; a flagitious one - no; an utterer of untruth - no; a duplicitous one, no, this king of monkeys is not even that. [4-35-3]

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उपकारम् कृतम् वीरो न अपि अयम् विस्मृतः कपिः |
रामेण वीर सुग्रीवो यत् अन्यैः दुष्करम् रणे || ४-३५-४

4. viira = oh, valiant Lakshmana; kapiH = monkey; ayam sugriivaH = this, Sugreeva; raNe = in combat; yat anyaiH duSkaram = which, for others, is impractical; such impractical deed is; raameNa kR^itam = by Rama, that has been done - in eliminating Vali; upakaaram = that favour; na vismR^itaH api = not, forgotten - disregarded, also.

"Although he is a monkey this Sugreeva has not dismissed from his mind even the favour Rama has done in his respect, oh, valiant Lakshmana, which in combat is impractical for others. [4-35-4]

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राम प्रसादात् कीर्तिम् च कपि राज्यम् च शाश्वतम् |
प्राप्तवान् इह सुग्रीवो रुमाम् माम् च परंतप || ४-३५-५

5. parantapa = oh, enemy-scorcher Lakshmana; sugriivaH = Sugreeva; iha = now; raama prasaadaat = by Rama's, beneficence; kiirtim ca = reputation, also; shaashvatam kapi raajyam ca = everlasting, monkeys, kingdom - kingship, also; rumaam ca = Ruma, also; maam ca = me, also; praaptavaan = has obtained - privileged with.

"By the beneficence of Rama, oh, the enemy-scorcher Lakshmana, now Sugreeva is privileged with reputation, everlasting kingship of monkeys, more so with Ruma and me as well. [4-35-5]

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सुदुःख शयितः पूर्वम् प्राप्य इदम् सुखम् उत्तमम् |
प्राप्त कालम् न जानीते विश्वामित्रो यथा मुनिः || ४-३५-६

6. puurvam = hitherto; su duHkha shayitaH = high, anguish, tolerated [or, reposed agonisingly]; uttamam idam sukham praapya = excellent, this, comfort [of kingship,], on getting; vishvaamitraH muniH yathaa = Vishvamitra, saint, as with; praapta kaalam = attained, time [timely action]; na jaaniite = not, aware of - not oriented himself.

"Hitherto he has tolerated high anguish and on the attainment of this high comfort of kingship he has not oriented himself to the time-oriented actions as with saint Vishvamitra. [4-35-6]

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घृताच्याम् किल संसक्तो दश वर्षाणि लक्ष्मण |
अहो अमन्यत धर्मात्मा विश्वामित्रो महामुनिः || ४-३५-७

7. lakSmaNa = oh, Lakshmana; dharmaatmaa mahaa muniH vishvaamitraH = virtue-souled, great-sage, Vishvamitra; dasha varSaaNi = for ten, years; ghR^itaacyaam sansaktaH = with Ghritaachi, clinging together; ahaH amanyata kila = as one day, he regarded as, forsooth.

"Oh, Lakshmana, that great-sage Vishvamitra clinging together with Ghritaachi, an angelic apsara, for a period of ten years, forsooth that virtue-souled sage regarded that period as one day. [4-35-7]

In Bala Kanda the legend of Vishvamitra is there. And there his association with Menaka is narrated. Some say the Menaka and Ghritaachi are the same apsara-s. But others say that Ghritaachi is a separate apsara. Vishvamitra gives up even his daily routines sandhya upaasana, nitya karma, required of a Vedic sage, in all the ten years of his association with Ghritaachi.

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स हि प्राप्तम् न जानीते कालम् कालविदाम् वरः |
विश्वामित्रो महातेजाः किम् पुनर् यः पृथग् जनः || ४-३५-८

8. kaala vidaam varaH = [among] timeliness, knowers, best one; mahaatejaaH saH vishvaamitraH = great-resplendent, he, that Vishvamitra; praaptam kaalam na jaaniite = occasioned, time, not, privy to; yaH pR^ithag janaH = who is, a common, man [commoner; about him; kim punaaH why, again - to talk of.

"When he who is a best one among the time-knowers, that great-resplendent Sage Vishvamitra himself is not privy to the occasioned time for a good many years, why talking about a commoner again. [4-35-8]

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देह धर्म गतस्य अस्य परिश्रान्तस्य लक्ष्मण |
अवितृप्तस्य कामेषु रामः क्षन्तुम् इह अर्हति || ४-३५-९

9. lakSmaNa = oh, Lakshmana; deha dharma gatasya = bodily, nature [appetites,] one who is undergoing; pari shraantasya = over, wrought [and, overtired]; kaameSu = in concupiscence; a vi tR^iptasya = not, verily, satisfied - absolutely discontent; asya = his - in his respect; raamaH iha kSantum arhati = Rama, to excuse - bear with him, for a while, apt of him [Rama.]

"He who is overwrought and now undergoing natural bodily appetites, oh, Lakshmana, and who is overtired as he is absolutely discontent in the concupiscence, such as Sugreeva is, it will be apt of Rama to bear with him for a while. [4-35-9]

The ever-alive bodily appetites common for any living being are four aahaara, nidraa, maithuna, bhaya, bhaya 'food, sleep, sex, and fear.'

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न च रोष वशम् तात गंतुम् अर्हसि लक्ष्मण |
निश्चयार्थम् अविज्ञाय सहसा प्राकृतो यथा || ४-३५-१०

10. taata lakSmaNa = oh, young man, Lakshmana; nishcaya artham a vij~naaya = decisive, reason - realities, without, knowing; praakR^itaH yathaa = commoner, as with; sahasaa roSa vasham gantum = hastily, rancour's, control, to enter; na ca arhasi = not, also, apt of you.

"Without knowing realities, oh, young man Lakshmana, it will be extraneous of you to hastily enter into the control of your rancour like a commoner. [4-35-10]

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सत्त्व युक्ता हि पुरुषाः त्वत् विधाः पुरुषर्षभ |
अविमृश्य न रोषस्य सहसा यान्ति वश्यताम् || ४-३५-११

11. puruSa rSabha = oh, best of men; sattva yuktaa = conscientiousness, one who is having; tvat vidhaaH = of your, kind; puruSaaH = persons; a vi mR^ishya = not, verily, conscious of - inconsiderately; sahasaa roSasya vashyataam = hurriedly, rancour's, getting under the control of; na yaanti = will not, go - get clutched.

"Men of your kind having conscientiousness, oh, best one among men, do not hurriedly rush in and get clutched by their own rancour, unconscionably. [4-35-11]

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प्रसादये त्वाम् धर्मज्ञ सुग्रीवार्थे समाहिता |
महान् रोष समुत्पन्नः संरंभः त्यज्यताम् अयम् || ४-३५-१२

12. dharmaj~na = oh, virtue-knower; samaahitaa = equably; sugriiva arthe = Sugreeva's, in the interest of; prasaadaye = I beg for you grace; roSa sam utpannaH = by indignation, verily, upshot; mahaan = great; ayam samrambhaH tyajyataam = this, [anger's] clangour, leave off - dispel.

"I beg for your grace, oh, virtue-knower, in the interest of Sugreeva with all my equability, and you may dispel this clangour upshot in high dudgeon of yours. [4-35-12]

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रुमाम् माम् च अंगदम् राज्यम् धन धान्य पशूनि च |
राम प्रियार्थम् सुग्रीवः त्यजेत् इति मतिर् मम || ४-३५-१३

13. sugriivaH = Sugreeva; raama priya artham = Rama's, pleasure, for purpose of - in honour of, if need be; rumaam = Ruma; maam ca = me, even; angadam raajyam = Angada, kingdom; dhana dhaanya pashuuni [vauuni] ca = riches, cereals, livestock [jewels,] also; tyajet = disowns; iti mama matiH = thus, my, inference.

"In the honour of Rama, Sugreeva will disown his wife Ruma, even me, even Angada, why us, he will disown whole kingdom with its riches, food grains, livestock and whatnot, as I can infer. [4-35-13]

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समानेष्यति सुग्रीवः सीतया सह राघवम् |
शशांकम् इव रोहिण्या हत्वा तम् राक्षस अधमम् || ४-३५-१४

14. sugriivaH = Sugreeva; raakshasa adhamam = demon, the worst; tam = him - Ravana; hatvaa = on eliminating; shashaankam rohiNyaa iva = to Moon, with Rohini, as with; raaghavam siitayaa saha Raghava, Seetha, along with,; samaaneSyati [sam an iSyati] to bring together - coalesces.

"On eliminating that worst demon Ravana, Sugreeva can bring Seetha together with Raghava, as with the coalescing of star Rohini with the Moon. [4-35-14]

Rohini is one of the twenty-seven stars of Indian Astrology, commencing from aashvani, bharaNi, kR^ittika, rohiNi... et al These are the daughters of Daksha Prajapati and wives of Moon. But the Moon is much interested in Rohini and used to neglect other twenty-six. Then all the twenty-six stars went to their father and complained, basing on which Daksha Prajapati issues a curse to Moon that he shall wane away. When his waning is beyond the reason, again the twenty-six stars have gone to their father and requested him to withdraw his curse. As an amendment to his curse Daksha says that the Moon shall wax for fifteen days and wane for the other fifteen days and the Moon shall take holy bath on no-moon day in one of the Holy Rivers, namely River Saraswati, now extinct, at a place called Prabhaasa. Then all the twenty-six other stars stopped interfering with the coalescence of Moon with Rohini.

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शत कोटि सहस्राणि लंकायाम् किल रक्षसाम् |
अयुतानि च षट् त्रिंशत् सहस्राणि शतानि च || ४-३५-१५

15. lankaayaam = in Lanka; rakSasaam = demons; shata koTi sahasraaNi = hundred, ten millions, thousands [trillion]; SaT trimshat = thirty-six; ayutaani ca = a unit of ten-thousand, also; sahasraaNi shataani ca [raakshasaaH] = thousands, hundreds, [of demons,] also; kila = they say.

"It is said that the demons in Lanka are a trillion, plus thirty-six thousands of units of military, where one unit consists of a ten-thousand warriors, and hundreds and thousands of other demons are there, thus they say. [4-35-15]

This military census is interpreted variously and in the above way it comes to 'one trillion thirty-nine thousand and six hundred; 1,000,000,399,600 plus many more in hundreds and thousands (?) However, the picture we get is that Lanka is a garrison of warriors, except for some sane citizens like Vibheeshana and his family, Mandodari, Sulocana wt al. Apart from them there is an invaluable wealth amassed by Ravana. And there are many sages and women that are held captive in that island.

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अहत्वा ताम् च दुर्धर्षान् राक्षसान् काम रूपिणः |
न शक्यो रावणो हंतुम् येन सा मैथिली हृता || ४-३५-१६

16. durdharSaan = unassailable ones; kaama ruupiNaH = guise-changers by wish; taam raakSasaan a hatvaa = them, demons, without killing; yena saa maithilii hR^itaa = by whom, she, Maithili, is abducted; such; raavaNaH = Ravana; hantum = to kill; na shakyaH = not, practicable.

"Without eliminating those unassailable and guise changing demons, it is impracticable to eliminate him who has abducted Maithili, namely Ravana. [4-35-16]

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ते न शक्या रणे हंतुम् असहायेन लक्ष्मण |
रावणः क्रूर कर्मा च सुग्रीवेण विशेषतः || ४-३५-१७

17. lakSmaNa = oh, Lakshmana; te = those - demons; and; kruura karmaa raavaNaH ca = of cruel, deeds, Ravana, also; a sahaayena = one without, assistance - either by unassisted Rama, or by unsupported Sugreeva; raNe hantum = in war, to kill; na shakyaa = he is - not, a possible one to get killed - Ravana is an unkillable entity; sugriiveNa visheSataH = by Sugreeva, especially, more so.

"Oh, Lakshmana, it is impossible to kill those demons, or that Ravana, the evil-doer and abductor of Seetha, without any assistance, more so to Sugreeva... [4-35-17]

On this verse some commentaries are having the meaning that 'Sugreeva cannot encounter those demons or Ravana, without any assistance of his forces...' Rama never wanted Sugreeva to wage war but sought help from Sugreeva in searching Seetha. Tara is a little ahead in her thinking and narrating the military capabilities of Ravana, as heard from Vali. Thus her opinion according to Tilaka commentary is 'Sugreeva cannot eliminate Ravana single-handedly and without assistance, and when Rama needs Sugreeva's help, Sugreeva needs his military assistance consequentially, which is a possibility only after Vali's elimination.' visheSataH sugriiveNa This verse is recorded in another method: na ca shakyaa raNe hantum asahaayena raakshasaaH | raameNa kR^Ira karmaNaH sugriiva sahitena vai ||  'Rama cannot kill these many demons without assistance, more so Sugreeva. So Sugreeva summoned all his forces to assist him. Sugreeva in turn can assist Rama along with his millions and millions of troops.' This is keeping the import of the verse 19 also in view.

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एवम् आख्यातवान् वाली स हि अभिज्ञो हरीश्वरः |
आगमः तु न मे व्यक्तः श्रवात् तस्य ब्रवीमि अहम् || ४-३५-१८

18. vaalii evam aakhyaatavaan = Vali, in this way, he was saying; saH hariishvaraH = he, the king of monkeys - Vali; abhij~naH hi = aware, isn't it; aagamaH = arrival - of these many demons under the aegis of Ravana; tu = but; me na vyaktaH = to me, not, clear; tasya = his - Vali's telling; shravaat = on hearing; aham braviimi = I am, telling.

"This way Vali was saying and that king of monkeys is well-informed in these aspects, isn't it! But how Ravana mustered up these many troops is unclear to me, and I am saying what I heard from Vali. [4-35-18]

It is also unclear as to when Vali informed Tara of this military strength. For this the commentators deduce a situation where Vali might have told Tara. When Tara said to Vali that Angada informed her about Rama's befriending Sugreeva, Vali making fun of Sugreeva might have detailed Ravana's capabilities to Tara, 'This Sugreeva by himself is a useless fellow, and Ravana has got these many capabilities, then why that helpless Rama shall befriend this hopeless Sugreeva? Rama should have sought my help, instead!' This might be the occasion for Vali to give details of Ravana's capabilities to Tara.

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त्वत् सहाय निमित्तम् हि प्रेषिता हरिपुंगवाः |
आनेतुम् वानरान् युद्धे सुबहून् हरिपुंगवान् || ४-३५-१९

19. tvat [tat] = for you, [or, for that reason]; yuddhe = in war; sahaaya nimittam = assistance, for the purpose of; hari pungavaan = monkey, the best ones; su bahuun = very, many; vaanaraan aanetum = monkeys, to muster up; hari pungavaaH = monkey, the best ones; preSitaa = are hastened.

"Intending that assistance to you in war, best monkeys are hastened in all directions, to muster up very many best of the best monkeys. [4-35-19]

Tara's reasoning is logical in calculating that a war is imminent and in the compund, tat yuddhe sahaaya nimittam if the word tat is used hen it will be: 'for the reason of helping that war'; and if tvat is used it will be: 'as a help to you...'. In any way, 'the war is yours, and we are here to help...' is the final output. Then the gist of her dialogue will be 'without attending to these pre-confrontation strategies what is the use of Sugreeva's or Hanuma's coming to you and sitting before you two, except to sing bhajan-s, kiirtan-s 'musical exalts and extols.' Thereby Sugreeva has done the need of the hour at the advise of Hanuma.'

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ताम् च प्रतीक्षमाणो अयम् विक्रांतान् सुमहा बलान् |
राघवस्य अर्थ सिद्धि अर्थम् न निर्याति हरि ईश्वरः || ४-३५-२०

20. ayam hari iishvaraH = this, king of monkeys; raaghavasya artha siddhi artham = of Raghava, objective, achieving, for the purpose of - determined; vikraantaan = venturesome ones - that are sent out; su mahaa balaan = very, great, mighty ones; taam = them; pratiikSamaaNaH = while he is awaiting for them; na niryaati = not, out, started - has not come to you.

"Determined to achieve the objective of Raghava this king of monkeys Sugreeva has not bestirred himself while awaiting the return of those venturesome and very great mighty monkey-warriors who are sent out. [4-35-20]

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कृता सुसंस्था सौमित्रे सुग्रीवेण यथा पुरा |
अद्य तैः वानरैः सर्वैः आगंतव्यम् महाबलैः || ४-३५-२१

21. saumitre = oh, Soumitri; sugriiveNa = by Sugreeva; puraa = earlier; su samsthaa = good, organised - groundwork; yathaa kR^itaa = as to how, it is made; according to it; mahaabalaiH = by great-mighty ones; sarvaiH = all of them; taiH vaanaraiH = by those, monkeys; adya aagantavyam = to day, they have to come.

"According to the well-organised groundwork earlier made by Sugreeva, oh, Saumitri, all of those great-mighty monkeys have to arrive here today itself. [4-35-21]

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ऋक्ष कोटि सहस्राणि गोलांगूल शतानि च |
अद्य त्वाम् उपयास्यन्ति जहि कोपम् अरिन्दम
कोट्यो अनेकाः तु काकुत्स्थ कपीनाम् दीप्त तेजसाम् || ४-३५-२२

22. arindama = oh, enemy-repressor; kaakutstha = oh, Kakutstha; adya = today; R^ikSa koTi sahasraaNi = bears, two million, thousands [millions and millions]; golaanguula shataani ca = baboons, hundreds [in hundredfolds,] also; diipta tejasaam = firebrand-like, by their own flare; kapiinaam = of monkeys; an ekaaH = not, one - innumerable; koTyaH tu = millions, but in; tvaam upa yaasyanti = to your, fore, they arrive; kopam jahi = anger, rebut.

"Only today millions and millions of bears and hundredfold millions of baboons, and innumerable monkeys who by their own flare are like firebrands will arrive in your fore, oh, Lakshmana, thereby, oh, the enemy-repressor, therefore rebut your rage. [4-35-22]

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तव हि मुखम् इदम् निरीक्ष्य कोपात्
क्षतज समे नयने निरीक्षमाणाः |
हरि वर वनिता न यान्ति शान्तिम्
प्रथम भयस्य हि शन्किताः स्म सर्वाः || ४-३५-२३

23. hari vara vanitaa = monkey, chief's, females; tava idam mukham niriikSya = your, this [this sort of angry,] face, on seeing; kopaat kSataja same nayane niriikSamaaNaaH = by anger, blood, similar, [your] eyes, on their gazing; shaantim na yaanti = peace, not, they get into; sarvaaH = all of us; prathama bhayasya hi = of first, fear, indeed - fear caused by the elimination of Vali in first instance; shankitaaH sma = with premonition, we are.

"On staring at this angry face of yours, and on gazing at the angrily bloodshot eyes of yours, unsecured is the peace to the females of monkeys chief, and with the fear caused at first by Vali's elimination we are all indeed premonished about such a happening in respect of Sugreeva too. [4-35-23]

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इति वाल्मीकि रामायणे आदि काव्ये किष्किन्ध काण्डे पंच त्रिंशः सर्गः

Thus, this is the 35th chapter in Kishkindha Kanda of Valmiki Ramayana, the First Epic poem of India.

Verse Locator for Book IV : Kishkindha Kanda - The Empire of Holy Monkeys : Chapter 35

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© July, 2002, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised : August 04]


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