Sugreeva approaches Rama and falls prostrate on Rama's feet as though seeking pardon for the delay. Rama gets him up and mildly admonishes him. Then Sugreeva while giving the account of legions that are coming in, informs Rama that all the Vanara armies on earth are coming for confronting Ravana in battle. On asserting that Sugreeva is at his job, Rama is pleased heartily.
प्रतिगृह्य च तत् सर्वम् उपानयम् उपाहृतम् |
वानरान् सान्त्वयित्वा च सर्वान् एव व्यसर्जयत् || ४-३८-१
1. upaahR^itam = that are brought in; tat sarvam upaanayam = that, all gifts - all those gifts from Himalayas; pratigR^ihya ca = on receiving, also; saantvayitvaa ca = on speaking good words - approbation, also; sarvaan eva = all of them, thus; vaanaraan vyasarjayat = Vanara-s, left them off - dispersed them.
On receiving all those gifts brought in by the Vanara-s from Himalayas, Sugreeva dispersed them all with approbation. [4-38-1]
विसर्जयित्वा स हरीन् सहस्रान् तान् कृत कर्मणः |
मेने कृतार्थम् आत्मानम् राघवम् च महाबलम् || ४-३८-२
2. saH = he that Sugreeva; kR^ita karmaNaH = who effectuated, their errand; sahasraan taan hariin visarjayitvaa = thousands of, them monkeys, on dispersing; aatmaanam = for himself; mahaabalam raaghavam ca = great-mighty, Raghava, also; kR^ita artham = achieved, aspirations; mene = deemed.
On dispersing thousands of monkeys who have effectuated their errand of summoning all monkeys on the earth, Sugreeva deemed that his own aspirations and as well as those of that great-mighty Rama are achieved. [4-38-2]
स लक्ष्मणो भीम बलम् सर्व वानर सत्तमम् |
अब्रवीत् प्रश्रितम् वाक्यम् सुग्रीवम् संप्रहर्षयन् || ४-३८-३
किष्किंधाया विनिष्क्राम यदि ते सौम्य रोचते |
3, 4a. saH lakSmaNaH = he that, Lakshmana; bhiima balam = indomitably, mighty; sarva vaanara sattamam = of all, vanara-s, an indomitable one - Sugreeva; sugriivam = to Sugreeva; sam pra harSayan = to gladden; prashritam vaakyam abraviit = courteous, sentence, spoke to; saumya = oh, gentle one; te rocate yadi = to you, it pleases, if - if it pleases you; kiSkindhaayaa vi niSkraama = from Kishkindha, verily, make an exit.
Gladdening Sugreeva who is indomitably mighty and the indomitable one among all vanara-s, Lakshmana spoke these courteous words to him, "oh, gentle one, if it please you, make an exit from Kishkindha." [4-38-3, 4a]
तस्य तत् वचनम् श्रुत्वा लक्ष्मणस्य सुभाषितम् || ४-३८-४
सुग्रीवः परम प्रीतो वाक्यम् एतत् उवाच ह |
एवम् भवतु गच्छामः स्थेयम् त्वत् शासने मया || ४-३८-५
4b, 5. sugriivaH = Sugreeva; su bhaaSitam = well, said - courteous words; tasya lakSmaNasya = of his, Lakshmana's; tat vacanam shrutvaa = that, sentence, on hearing; parama priitaH = while extremely, pleased; etat vaakyam uvaaca ha = this, sentence, spoke, indeed; evam bhavatu = that way, it will be - so be it; gacChaamaH = let us go; mayaa = by me; tvat = in your; shaasane = command; stheyam = remain biddable - amenable to.
On hearing the courteous words of Lakshmana Sugreeva is extremely pleased and he indeed spoke this sentence to him, "So be it. Let us go. I remain biddable in your command." [4-38-4b, 5]
तम् एवम् उक्त्वा सुग्रीवो लक्ष्मणम् शुभ लक्षणम् |
विसर्जयामास तदा तारा अद्याः च एव योषितः || ४-३८-६
6. sugriivaH = Sugreeva; shubha lakSaNam = to one with auspicious, features; tam lakSmaNam = to him, to Lakshmana; evam uktvaa = thus, on speaking; tadaa = then; taaraa aadyaH = to Tara, and other; yoSitaH eva ca = females, thus, also; visarjayaamaasa = started to disperse.
Sugreeva speaking thus to Lakshmana, whose person itself is auspicious, then bade adieu to Lady Tara and the other female vanara-s. [4-38-6]
एहि इति उच्छैः हरि वरान् सुग्रीवः समुदाहरत् |
तस्य तद् वचनम् श्रुत्वा हरयः शीघ्रम् आययुः || ४-३८-७
बद्ध अंजलि पुटाः सर्वे ये स्युः स्त्री दर्शन क्षमाः |
7, 8a. sugriivaH = Sugreeva; ehi = come here; iti ucChaiH = thus, sharply; hari varaan = at monkey, the best ones; sam udaaharat = shouted for; tasya tat vacanam shrutvaa = his, that, word [call,] on hearing; ye = which of those; strii darshana kSamaaH = at ladies, to see, who are spared; syuH = will be there; sarve harayaH = all of those, monkeys; baddha anjali puTaaH = with adjoined, palms, fold; shiighram aayayuH = swiftly, came.
Sugreeva shouted sharply saying, "come here," at the best monkey-adjutants and on hearing his call all of those monkeys that are spared to see the ladies of palace chambers have come there swiftly with their palms adjoined in supplication. [4-38-7]
तान् उवाच ततः प्राप्तान् राजा अर्क सदृश प्रभः || ४-३८-८
उपस्थापयत क्षिप्रम् शिबिकाम् मम वानराः |
8b, 9a. tataH = then; arka sadR^isha prabhaH = sun, similar, in refulgence; raajaa = king; praaptaan taan uvaaca = [monkeys] who arrived, to them, spoke; vaanaraaH = oh, vanara-s; mama shibikaam = my, palanquin; kSipram upa sthaapayata = immediately, at hand, be positioned.
Then the king Sugreeva whose refulgence is kindred to that of sun has said to those vanara-s that have arrived there, "oh, vanara-s, immediately position my palanquin before me." [4-38-8b, 9a]
श्रुत्वा तु वचनम् तस्य हरयः शीघ्र विक्रमाः || ४-३८-९
समुपस्थापयामासुः शिबिकाम् प्रिय दर्शनाम् |
9b, 10a. shiighra vikramaaH = in agility, adept ones; harayaH = monkeys; tasya vacanam shrutvaa = his, words, on hearing; priya darshanaam shibikaam = an exquisite one, in its appearance, such a palanquin; sam upa sthaapayaamaasuH = readily, nearby, started to position.
On hearing his words those monkeys who are the adept ones in their agility right away brought an exquisite palanquin and readily started to position it at his nearby. [4-38-9b, 10a]
ताम् उपस्थापिताम् दृष्ट्वा शिबिकाम् वानराधिपः || ४-३८-१०
लक्ष्मण आरुह्यताम् शीघ्रम् इति सौमित्रिम् अब्रवीत् |
10b, 11a. vaanara adhipaH = monkeys, king - Sugreeva; upasthaapitaam taam shibikaam dR^iSTvaa = nearby, positioned, that, palanquin, on seeing; lakSmaNa shiighram aaruhyataam = Lakshmana, quickly, mount it; iti saumitrim abraviit = thus, to Soumitri, said.
And on seeing palanquin positioned at his nearby the king of monkeys Sugreeva said to Saumitri, "you mount it, Lakshmana, be quick." [4-38-10b, 11a]
इति उक्त्वा कांचनम् यानम् सुग्रीवः सूर्य सन्निभम् || ४-३८-११
बहुभिः हरिभिः युक्तम् आरुरोह स लक्ष्मणः |
11b, 12a. sugriivaH iti uktvaa = Sugreeva, so, saying; suurya sannibham = sun, similar in shine [palanquin]; bahubhiH haribhiH yuktam = many, monkeys, having [as carriers]; kaancanam yaanam = golden, carriage; sa lakSmaNaH aaruroha = with Lakshmana, climbed into it.
Saying so Sugreeva got into that golden carriage which in shine is like the sun and which has many monkey-carriers along with Lakshmana. [4-38-11b, 12a]
पाण्डुरेण आतपत्रेण ध्रियमाणेन मूर्धनि || ४-३८-१२
शुक्लैः च वाल व्यजनैः धूयमानैः समंततः |
शंख भेरी निनादैः च वन्दिभिः च अभिवन्दितः || ४-३८-१३
निर्ययौ प्राप्य सुग्रीवो राज्य श्रियम् अनुत्तमाम् |
12b, 13, 14a. sugriivaH = Sugreeva; an uttamaam = un, excelled one; raajya shriyam praapya = of kingdom, magnificence, on achieving; vandibhiH abhi vanditaH ca = by panegyrists, highly extolling, also; muurdhani = atop head; dhriyamaaNena = held on [as shade]; paaNDureNa aata patreNa = white, sun, shade - by parasol; samantataH = all over; dhuuyamaanaiH shuklaiH vaala vyajanaiH ca = being fanned, white, with fur-fans, also; shankha bherii ni naadaiH ca = of conch-shell, of drums, with high, sounds, also; nir yayau = out, started.
Sugreeva who achieved the kingdom of unexcelled magnificence has started out that magnificently to the high extolment of panegyrists, while a white royal-parasol spread overhead the palanquin, white fur-fans fanning him from all over, and while conch-shells are blowing loud and drums are drumming high. [4-38-12b, 13, 14a]
स वानर शतैः तीष्क्णैः बहुभिः शस्त्र पाणिभिः || ४-३८-१४
परिकीर्णो ययौ तत्र यत्र रामो व्यवस्थितः |
14b, 15a. saH = he - Sugreeva; shastra paaNibhiH = weapons, in hands - wielders; tiiSkNaiH = confrontational ones; bahubhiH vaanara shataiH = with many, vanara-s, along with, hundreds of; pari kiirNaH = around, spreading - surrounded with; raamaH yatra vyavasthitaH [vi ava sthitaH] = Rama, where he is, ensconced; tatra yayau = to there, they travelled.
Sugreeva travelled thus surrounded with many hundreds of vanara-s, who look confrontational and who wielded weapons, to the place where Rama is staying. [4-38-14b, 15a]
स तम् देशम् अनुप्राप्य श्रेष्ठम् राम निषेवितम् || ४-३८-१५
अवातरत् महातेजाः शिबिकायाः स लक्ष्मणः |
15b, 16a. mahaatejaaH = great-resplendent one, Sugreeva; sa lakSmaNaH = along with, Lakshmana; saH = he - Sugreeva; raama niSevitam = by Rama, adored - place adored by Rama while staying there; shreSTham tam desham = choicest, that, province; anupraapya = on attaining; shibikaayaaH = from palanquin; avaa tarat = down, climbed.
On reaching the province where Rama is staying in all his adoration to that place, the great-resplendent Sugreeva descended the palanquin along with Lakshmana. [4-38-15b, 16a]
आसाद्य च ततो रामम् कृत अंजलि पुटो अभवत् || ४-३८-१६
कृत अंजलौ स्थिते तस्मिन् वानराः च अभवन् तथा |
16b, 17a. tataH = then; raamam aasaadya ca = Rama, on reaching, also; kR^ita anjali puTaH abhavat = making, adjoined, palm-fold, he became; tasmin = his; kR^ita anjalau sthite = making, palms adjoined, when he remained; vaanaraaH ca = [all of the] monkeys, also; tathaa = like that; abhavat = they became - all stood with adjoined palms.
When Sugreeva reached Rama he stood still with adjoined-palms, and when he remained still with palm-fold all the other monkeys stood still with palm-fold. [4-38-16b, 17a]
तटाकम् इव तम् दृष्ट्वा रामः कुड्मल पंकजम् || ४-३८-१७
वानराणाम् महत् सैन्यम् सुग्रीवे प्रीतिमान् अभूत् |
17b, 18a. raamaH = Rama; kuDmala pankajam = with buds, of lotuses; tam = it [vanara fore]; taTaakam iva = a lake, as if - it is; vaanaraaNaam mahat sainyam = of Vaanaras, massive, army; dR^iSTvaa = on seeing; sugriive priitimaan abhuut = in Sugreeva, exultant, he became.
Rama became exultant of Sugreeva on seeing the massive army of Vanara-s which is just like a vast lake plethoric with buds of lotuses. [4-38-17b, 18a]
Terrible looking monkeys are compared with delicate lotus buds - is this a simile at all? Not So. The 'sense' dhvani in this is like this. The folded and adjoined palms of all the monkeys are looking like lotus buds. While adjoining palms they raised hands over their heads, where their bodies are appearing similar to the stems of lotuses, and folded palms are like unfolded lotus buds. Rama is gladdened because the lake called Sugreeva contains these many prayerful devotees who are praying with lotus-bud-like folded palms.
पादयोः पतितम् मूर्ध्ना तम् उत्थाप्य हरीश्वरम् || ४-३८-१८
प्रेम्णा च बहुमानात् च राघवः परिषस्वजे |
18b, 19a. raaghavaH = Raghava; muurdhnaa paadayoH patitam = with head - headlong, on feet [of Rama,] fallen; tam hariishvaram = him, monkey's king - Sugreeva; utthaapya = on raising up; premNaa ca bahumaanaat ca = with care, and, credit, also; pari Sa svaje = tightly, hugged him.
Raghava raised and tightly hugged the king of monkeys Sugreeva, who has prostrated himself with his head touching the feet of Rama, with care and credit. [4-38-18b, 19a]
परिष्वज्य च धर्मात्मा निषीद इति ततो अब्रवीत् || ४-३८-१९
निषण्णम् तम् ततो दृष्ट्वा क्षितौ रामो अब्रवीत् ततः |
19b, 20a. tataH = then; dharmaatmaa raamaH = virtue-souled one, Rama; pariSvajya ca = on hugging, also; tataH = then; niSiida iti abraviit = be seated, thus, said - to Sugreeva; tataH = then; kSitau niSaNNam = on ground, who is sitting - Sugreeva; tam dR^iSTvaa abraviit = him, on seeing, spoke.
After hugging Sugreeva that virtue-souled Rama then said to him, "be seated." Then on seeing Sugreeva who took seat on ground Rama spoke to him. [4-38-19b, 20a]
धर्मम् अर्थम् च कामम् च काले यः तु निषेवते || ४-३८-२०
विभज्य सततम् वीर स राजा हरिसत्तम |
20b, 21a. viira = oh, valiant one; hari sattama = oh, monkey's, the best; yaH = he who; satatam = always; dharmam artham ca kaamam ca = probity, prosperity, also, pleasure-seeking, also; kaale = according to time; vibhajya = by dividing; niSevate = devote oneself to; saH raajaa = he [alone,] is the king.
"He alone is the king, oh, valiant Sugreeva, who always divides time for devoting himself to probity, prosperity and pleasure-seeking. [4-38-20b, 21a]
Say, mornings for duty-bound affairs, afternoons for financial matters, and nights for pleasure-seeking programs.
हित्वा धर्मम् तथा अर्थम् च कामम् यः तु निषेवते || ४-३८-२१
स वृक्ष अग्रे यथा सुप्तः पतितः प्रतिबुध्यते |
21b, 22a. yaH = he who; dharmam tathaa artham ca = probity, like that, prosperity, also; hitvaa = on discarding; kaamam tu niSevate = to pleasure-seeking, alone, devotes to; saH = he; vR^ikSa agre suptaH yathaa = on tree, top, one who slept, as with; patitaH prati budhyate = after falling, in turn, wakes up [awakens.]
"If one devotes himself to pleasure-seeking alone, casting off the probity and like that the prosperity also, he is like the one who slept on a treetop who awakens only after falling down. [4-38-21b, 22a]
An out-and-out pleasure-seeker wakes up only when he runs into troubles. Till such time he uses slender branches and tender leaves available on the infirm treetop, called his pleasuring area, as his cushion bed and foam pillows.
अमित्राणाम् वधे युक्तो मित्राणाम् संग्रहे रतः || ४-३८-२२
त्रिवर्ग फल भोक्ता च राजा धर्मेण युज्यते |
22b, 23a. a mitraaNaam vadhe yuktaH = un, friendly ones, in killing, bound up in; mitraaNaam sangrahe rataH = of friends, forgathering, bound up with; such a; raajaa = king; dharmeNa yujyate = with righteousness, enjoined with; tri varga phala bhoktaa ca = three, fold [probity, prosperity, pleasures] fruit, enjoyer, also - he becomes.
"And the king who is bound up in eliminating unfriendly ones and bound up with forgathering friends, he will be enjoined with righteousness, and he even becomes the real enjoyer of the fruit of threefold virtues, namely dharma, artha, kaama - probity, prosperity and pleasures. [4-38-22b, 23a]
A sheer pleasure-seeker will be awakened when he suddenly falls from heights of pleasures, may it be due any factor like wealth, age or destitution. This happens if only he summarily rejects the other two, probity in life and pursuance to acquire real and everlasting prosperity, in lifetime. And a real king worth his kingship is the one who practises and enjoys all the threefold virtues, namely probity, prosperity and pleasures at appropriate timings and at appreciable limits, unlike Sugreeva who is indulgent in only one among those three, namely pleasures.
उद्योग समयः तु एष प्राप्तः शत्रु निषूदन || ४-३८-२३
संचिंत्यताम् हि पिंगेश हरिभिः सह मंत्रिभिः |
23b, 24a. shatru niSuudana = oh, enemy, eliminator; pinga iisha = oh, monkeys, king of - Sugreeva; eSa udyoga samayaH praaptaH = this is, for endeavour, time, has chanced; mantribhiH haribhiH saha = with monkeys, ministers, along with - jointly; sam cintyataam = let it be thought over; hi = indeed.
"Oh, enemy-eliminator, time for endeavour has come, oh, king of monkeys, let this be discussed along with your monkey-ministers." Thus Rama spoke to Sugreeva. [4-38-23b, 24a]
एवम् उक्तः तु सुग्रीवो रामम् वचनम् अब्रवीत् || ४-३८-२४
प्रनष्टा श्रीः च कीर्तिः च कपि राज्यम् च शाश्वतम् |
त्वत् प्रसादात् महाबाहो पुनः प्राप्तम् इदम् मया || ४-३८-२५
24b, 25. evam uktaH tu sugriivaH = thus, who is spoken to, on his part, Sugreeva; raamam vacanam abraviit = to Rama, words, said; mahaabaahuH = oh dextrous one; pra naSTaa shriiH ca kiirtiH ca = verily, mislaid, prosperity, also, popularity, also; shaashvatam = everlasting one; idam kapi raajyam ca = this, monkeys, kingdom, also; mayaa = by me; tvat prasaadaat = by your, beneficence, punaH praaptam = again, achieved.
When Rama addressed him in this way, Sugreeva said these words to Rama, "oh, dextrous Rama, by your beneficence I have repossessed prosperity, popularity and this everlasting kingdom of monkeys which are actually mislaid. [4-38-24b, 25]
तव देव प्रसदात् च भ्रातुः च जयताम् वर |
कृतम् न प्रतिकुर्यात् यः पुरुषाणाम् स दूषकः || ४-३८-२६
26. deva = oh, god; jayataam vara = oh, among victors, the best one; tava = your; and; bhraatuH ca = [your] brother's; prasadaat = by benevolence; kR^itam = done; [upakaaram = favour]; yaH = he, who; na prati kuryaat = doest not, in turn, does - does not requite; saH puruSaaNaam duuSakaH = he, among people, is a vitiator [of probity.]
"Oh, god, by your and your brother's benevolence alone I regained what I lost, oh, victorious one among victors, and he who does not requite the favour that has been done for him will become the vitiator of probity among men. [4-38-26]
एते वानर मुख्याः च शतशः शत्रु सूदन |
प्राप्ताः च आदाय बलिनः पृथिव्याम् सर्व वानरान् || ४-३८-२७
ऋक्षाः च वानराः शूरा गोलांगूलाः च राघव |
कांतार वन दुर्गाणाम् अभिज्ञा घोर दर्शनाः || ४-३८-२८
27. shatru suudana = oh, enemy, subjugator; shatashaH = hundreds are; ete vaanara mukhyaaH ca = these, Vanara, chiefs, also; pR^ithivyaam = on earth available; balinaH sarva vaanaraan aadaaya = forceful ones, all of the, Vanara-s, on fetching; praaptaaH ca = they came, also - they just returned on forgathering.
"These are the hundreds of vanara chiefs, oh, enemy-subjugator, who have just returned on forgathering all of the forceful vanara-s on earth. [4-38-27]
देव गन्धर्व पुत्राः च वानराः काम रूपिणः |
स्वैः स्वैः परिवृताः सैन्यैः वर्तन्ते पथि राघव || ४-३८-२९
28. raaghava = one born in Raghu's dynasty; raaghava = oh, Raghava; abhij~naaH = knowers [experts of places that are] kaantaara = impenetrable forests; vana = woodlands; dur gaaNaam = not, passable - say mountains; ghora darshanaaH = those that are dreadful, in look; R^ikSaaH ca = bears, also; vaanaraaH = monkeys; shuuraaH golaanguulaaH ca = brave ones; baboons, also; deva gandharva putraaH ca = of gods, of gandharva-s, sons, also; kaama ruupiNaH = by wish, guise-changers; such; vaanaraaH = Vanara-s; svaiH svaiH sainyaiH = their, their [their own,] with forces; parivR^itaaH = fenced round; pathi vartante = in path, are on the move.
"Oh, Raghava, the legatee of Raghu, those vanara-s with dreadful appearance, and who are the experts in permeating the impenetrable forests, woodlands and impassable mountains are coming. And the bears, monkeys and brave baboons who are the children of gods and gandharva-s, and who change their guise just by their wish are halfway through on their path duly fenced round with one's own forces. [4-38-28, 29]
शतैः शत सहस्रैः च कोटिभिः च प्लवंगमाः |
अयुतैः च आवृता वीरा शंकुभिः च परंतप || ४-३८-३०
अर्बुदैः अर्बुद शतैः मध्यैः च अन्तैः च वानराः |
समुद्राः च परार्धाः च हरयो हरि यूथपाः || ४-३८-३१
आगमिष्यन्ति ते राजन् महेन्द्र सम विक्रमाः |
मेघ पर्वत संकाशा मेरु विन्ध्य कृत आलयाः || ४-३८-३२
30, 31, 32. paran tapa = oh, enemy-flamer; raajan = oh, king; viira = oh, valiant one; plavan gamaaH = fly-jumpers; shataiH = in hundreds; shata sahasraiH ca = in hundred, thousands, even - in lakhs; tathaa = likewise; koTibhiH ca = in crores [millions]; ayutaiH ca = in legion named aayuta; shankubhiH ca = with legions named shanku-s, also; arbudaiH = with legions named arbuda; arbuda shataiH = such arbuda-s, hundreds of; madhyaiH ca = with legions named madhya-s, also; antaiH ca = with legions named antaH-s; aavR^itaa = surrounded with such legions; vaanaraaH = Vanara-s; [pathi vartante = are on the path]; samudraaH ca paraardhaaH ca = with legions named as - samudra-s, also, paraardha-s; harayaH = monkeys; mahendra sama vikramaaH = Mahendra, [vanara-s who] equal, in valour; megha parvata samkaashaa = clouds, mountains, similar to; meru vindhya kR^ita aalayaaH = on Mt. Meru, Mt. Vindhya, who made, their domicile; te = for you for your purpose; hari yuuthapaaH = monkey, commanders; aagamiSyanti = will be coming.
"Oh, king, some of the fly-jumpers that are arriving are with a hundred-legion, some with a hundred-thousand legion, and even some with millions of legions, while the some are on the way with specific legions like aayuta-s, shanku-s. And oh, valiant one Rama, some with legions of arbuda-s, and some with hundreds of arbuda-s, some with madhya-s, and some with antaH-s are coming. Some more are coming with samudra-s and some with paraardha-s legions of monkeys. Oh, enemy-flamer Rama, the legions of monkeys along with their monkey commanders who are viable to Mahendra in valour, and who compare with massive clouds and mountains, and who domiciled on Mt. Meru and Mt. Vindhya will be coming in your service. [4-38-30, 31, 32]
In the Indian counting system hundred thousands becomes one lakh, [1,00, 000.] One hundred lakhs become one crore, [10,000,000.] The ancient Indian legionaries have names like aayuta 'one thousand per unit...' shanku 'one lakh crores...' a trillion - 1012. One arbuda 'thousand shanku-s...' madhyama 'ten arbuda-s...' antam 'ten madhyama-s...' samudra 'twenty antya-s...' paraardha 'thirty samudra-s...' Rama Tilaka says that by giving these numbers it is to be understood that 'innumerable monkeys are coming...' But others hold the view that the ancients have organised military pattern hence particular nomenclature is given to each, apart from the generalisation of Rama Tilaka.
Govindaraja takes up the enumeration as given in Indian Astrology, which multiplies ten times each, as said in verse:
ekam dasha shatam asmaat sahasram ayutam tataH param lakSham | prayutam koTim atha arbudam vR^inde kharvam nikharvam ca | tasmaat mahaa sarojam shankum saritaam patim tvat antam | madhyam paraadham aaruuhya atha uttaram dasha guNam tathaa j~neyam || 'one, ten, hundred, thousand, ten thousand, one lakh, prayutam 'ten lakhs or a million, then a crore and then an arbuda ten-crore or a billion, and then ten arbuda-s makes one bR^inda and ten brinda-s make one kharva and ten kharva-s make one nikharva and ten nikharva-s make one mahaa padma and ten mahaa padma-s make one shanku 'one lakh crores or a trillion, and ten shanku-s make one samudra and then ten samudra-s make one anta and ten anta-s make a madhyama and ten madhyama-s make one paraardha it may be known thus...
By this, the nomenclature of million, billion and trillion was there in ancient days and this may be observed by the names: prayutam 'a million...' arbuda 'a billion..' and shanku 'a trillion...' and this exactly relates to the decimal system which is based on the number ten, in which the smaller units are related to the principal units as powers of ten [units, tens, hundreds, thousands, etc.]
ते त्वाम् अभिगमिष्यन्ति राक्षसम् योद्धुम् आहवे |
निहत्य रावणम् युद्धे हि आनयिष्यन्ति मैथिलीम् || ४-३८-३३
33. [ye = which of those vanara-s]; yuddhe yoddhum = in war, to combat - whoi are combative; aahave raakSasam raavaNam nihatya = in war, demon, Ravana, on killing; maithiliim aanayiSyanti = Maithili, who can bring her; te = such of those vanara-s; tvaam abhi gamiSyanti = you, they will be approaching; hi = surely.
"Those vanara-s who are combative in wars, and those who can fetch Maithili on eliminating Ravana in war, will be approaching you soon." Thus Sugreeva informed Rama. [4-38-33]
ततः समुद्योगम् अवेक्ष्य वीर्यवान्
हरि प्रवीरस्य निदेश वर्तिनः |
बभूव हर्षात् वसुधा अधिप आत्मजः
प्रबुद्ध नील उत्पल तुल्य दर्शनः || ४-३८-३४
34. tataH = then; viiryavaan = valorous one - Rama; vasudhaa adhipa aatmajaH = of earth, king's, son - prince Rama; nidesha vartinaH = under order [of Rama,] operating; hari pra viirasya = monkey, prominent, valorous one's - Sugreeva's; sam udyogam = perfect, effort; avekSya = on observing; harSaat = by jubilance; pra buddha niila utpala tulya = well, bloomed, blue, Costus - a kind of Indian lotus, similar; darshanaH = with such eyes - not appearance in general; babhuuva = became.
Then on seeing the perfect effort made by the prominent one among all monkeys, Sugreeva, who is operating under his control, the eyes of valorous prince Rama are widened in jubilance, like the well-bloomed blue-lotuses. [4-38-34]
- - -
इति वाल्मीकि रामायणे आदि काव्ये किष्किन्ध काण्डे अष्टा त्रिंशः सर्गः
|Top of Page||1||2||3||4|
© Aug, 2002, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised : September 04]