Monkeys decide to fast unto death as they failed in executing Sugreeva command. Sugreeva already said that anyone returning after timeframe might deem himself as dead. Thus, Angada casting aspersions on Sugreeva and his ruthless commands, takes this decision on many counts. All the other monkeys follow the suite.
श्रुत्वा हनुमतो वाक्यम् प्रश्रितम् धर्म संहितम् |
स्वामि सत्कार संयुक्तम् अंगदो वाक्यम् अब्रवीत् || ४-५५-१
1. hanumataH = from Hanuma; prashritam = polite; dharma samhitam = to probity, compliant [righteous words]; svaami = to lord [of Hanuma]; satkaara samyuktam = respect, having [yeomanly]; vaakyam = words; shrutvaa = on hearing; angadaH vaakyam abraviit = Angada, sentence, said.
On hearing the polite and righteous words of Hanuma, which are just yeomanly towards Hanuma's lord, namely Sugreeva, Angada said these sentences. [4-55-1]
स्थैर्यमात्ममनःशौचमानृशंस्यमथाअर्जवम् - यद्व -
स्थैर्यम् आत्म मनः शौचम् आनृशंस्यम् अथ आर्जवम् |
विक्रमः चैव धैर्यम् च सुग्रीवे न उपपद्यते || ४-५५-२
2. sthairyam = steadiness; aatma manaH shaucam = of soul, heart, cleanliness; aa nR^ishamsyam = not, cruelty [harmlessness]; atha = then [further more]; aarjavam = frankness; vikramaH caiva = salience, also thus; dhairyam ca = valiance, even; sugriive na upapadyate = in Sugreeva, not, deducible.
"Un-deducible in Sugreeva are his steadiness, or harmlessness, or frankness, also thus salience, or even valiance, further more cleanliness of heart or soul. [4-55-2]
भ्रातुः ज्येष्ठस्य यो भार्याम् जीवितो महिषीम् प्रियाम् |
धर्मेण मातरम् यः तु स्वीकरोति जुगुप्सितः || ४-५५-३
कथम् स धर्मम् जानीते येन भ्रात्रा दुरात्मना |
युद्धाय अभिनियुक्तेन बिलस्य पिहितम् मुखम् || ४-५५-४
3, 4. jugupsitaH = despicable one; yaH = which - Sugreeva; jyeSThasya bhraatuH jiivitaH = elder, brother, while alive and well; dharmeNa maataram = morally, [his - Sugreeva's] mother [like]; bhaaryaam = [his brother's] wife; priyaam mahiSiim = lady love, [and an] empress; sviikaroti = has taken - arrogated; yaH duraatmanaa = which, by that bad-minded [nefarious, Sugreeva]; bhraatraa yuddhaaya abhi niyuktena = who by brother [Vali,] to fightback [the demon,] assigned; yena = by whom; bilasya mukham pihitam = cavity's, mouth, closed; saH = he - Sugreeva; dharmam katham jaaniite = rectitude, how, he knows.
"Which Sugreeva has arrogated his elder brother's wife when that elder brother is still alive and well, where she is morally his motherlike, an empress and a lady love of that elder brother, thus he is despicable, and which Sugreeva closed the mouth of the cavity when his brother in all his belief assigned and stationed him alone at the mouth of the cavity to fightback the demon Dundubhi if he tries to escape, all the more when his own brother is still inside the cavity, thus he is nefarious, how then he can be said as one conversant with moral rectitude? [4-55-3, 4]
सत्यात् पाणि गृहीतः च कृत कर्मा महायशाः |
विस्मृतो राघवो येन स कस्य सुकृतम् स्मरेत् || ४-५५-५
5. satyaat paaNi gR^ihiitaH ca = truthfully, hand, on taking [handshake, befriending,] also; kR^ita karmaa mahaayashaaH = facilitated, task, great-glorious one [Rama]; raaghavaH = Raghava is; yena = by whom [by which Sugreeva]; vismR^itaH = is overlooked; saH kasya su kR^itam smaret = he [Sugreeva,] whose [others like us,] good, services, he remembers.
"Which Sugreeva has overlooked no less than the great glorious Raghava, whom he truthfully befriended and from whom his own task of arrogating my kingdom by eliminating my father is facilitated, how then can he remember the good services of others like us? [4-55-5]
For this statement Hanuma may retort saying 'Sugreeva has not overlooked Rama but otherwise engrossed in material comforts. He sent all of us all over to search for Seetha in requital to the help rendered by Rama... is it not the upright conduct of Sugreeva?' For that Angada is ready with an answer as.
लक्ष्मणस्य भयेन इह न अधर्म भय भीरुणा |
आदिष्टा मार्गितुम् सीताम् धर्मः तस्मिन् कथम् भवेत् || ४-५५-६
6. iha = to here; lakSmaNasya bhayena = of Lakshmana, from fear; siitaam maargitum aadiSTaaH = for Seetha, to search, we are ordered [and sent]; a dharma bhaya bhiiruNaa = un, scrupulousness, fearing, as a coward; na = not; not as a coward fearing his own unscrupulousness; tasmin dharmaH katham bhavet = in him, scrupulosity, how, manifests.
"He has ordered and sent us for searching Seetha owing to the fear from Lakshmana, but not as a coward fearing his own unscrupulousness, how then can scrupulosity be manifest in him? [4-55-6]
तस्मिन् पापे कृतघ्ने तु स्मृति भिन्ने चल आत्मनि |
आर्यः को विश्वसेत् जातु तत् कुलीनो विशेषतः || ४-५५-७
7. paape = sinner - shameful one; kR^itaghne = unthankful one; smR^iti bhinne [hiine] = remembrance, goes against - contrary to tradition, unmindful one; cala aatmani = wavering, mind having - changeful one; tasmin = in him - Sugreeva; jaatu = at anytime; aaryaH = a respectable one; kaH vishvaset = who, believes; visheSataH = especially; tat kuliinaH = to his, one belonging - one belonging to his family.
"Who is that respectable one who can put belief in Sugreeva, while that Sugreeva is shameful by his shameless act of eliminating my father, and unmindful of tradition in usurping my mother and throne, and unthankful in requiting Rama by himself, instead of using us as pawns, and changeful in ignoring his promise to Rama, but in fearing for Lakshmana? Will it be possible especially for one like me belonging to his family? [4-55-7]
राज्ये पुत्रः प्रतिष्ठाप्यः स गुणो निर्गुणो अपि वा |
कथम् शत्रु कुलीनम् माम् सुग्रीवो जीवयिष्यति || ४-५५-८
8. sa guNaH vaa nir guNaH api = with, honesty, or, without, honesty, whether; putraH raajye pratiSThaapyaH = son, in kingdom, is investable; sugriivaH = Sugreeva; shatru kuliinam = enemy's, familial; maam katham jiivayiSyati = me, how, let live.
"Whether a son is honest or dishonest he alone is investable in the kingdom. How then can Sugreeva let me, the one from the family of his enemy, live on? [4-55-8]
This is in reply to Hanuma's advise, 'he establishes you only in kingdom, as before...' as at 4-54-20. But Hanuma cannot rebut Angada for he has no valid proof to show to Angada about Sugreeva's goodness towards Angada, as sermonised by Hanuma in the earlier chapter. Hence, 'better to follow the leader, than to argue...' is the only option left to Hanuma.
भिन्न मन्त्रो अपराद्धः च हीन शक्तिः कथम् हि अहम् |
किष्किन्धाम् प्राप्य जीवेयम् अनाथ इव दुर्बलः || ४-५५-९
9. bhinna mantraH = broken [backfired, my secret] slyness; aparaaddhaH ca = culpable, also; hiina shaktiH = less, power; aham = such as I am; kiSkindhaam praapya = Kishkindha, on reaching; durbalaH anaatha iva = a caitiff, like, a wretch; katham jiiveyam hi = how, I can live, indeed.
"My slyness in planning to live in Black Hole has backfired, I am now culpable in not finding Seetha being the troop leader, and I am a powerless as you all are Sugreeva's side, how then can I live on indeed after reaching Kishkindha, like caitiff turned into a wretch. [4-55-9]
उपांशु दण्डेन हि माम् बंधनेन उपपादयेत् |
शठः क्रूरो नृशंसः च सुग्रीवो राज्य कारणात् || ४-५५-१०
10. shaThaH = disingenuous; kruuraH = ferocious; nR^ishamsaH = barbarous; such as he is; sugriivaH = Sugreeva; raajya kaaraNaat = kingship, for the reason of; maam = me; upaamshu daNDena = by mysterious, punishment; bandhanena = for trammelling; upapaadayet hi = surceases, indeed.
"Indeed he surceases me by some mysterious trammelling punishment, for that Sugreeva becomes disingenuous, ferocious, also barbarous just for the reason of his kingship. [4-55-10]
बंधनात् च अवसादात् मे श्रेयः प्रायोपवेशनम् |
अनुजानंतु माम् सर्वे गृहम् गच्छंतु वानराः || ४-५५-११
11. bandhanaat ca avasaadaat me = than trammels, also, than tramples, to me; praayopaveshanam shreyaH = fast unto death, behoves; sarve vaanaraaH = all, Vanara-s; maam anujaanantu = my [proposal]; be acquiescent; gR^iham gacChantu = to dwelling place, may go back.
"Fast unto death behoves me than trammels and tramples, thus you all be acquiescent to my proposal and you may go back to your dwellings. [4-55-11]
अहम् वः प्रतिजानामि न गमिष्यामि अहम् पुरीम् |
इह एव प्रायम् आसिष्ये श्रेयो मरणम् एव मे || ४-५५-१२
12. aham vaH pratijaanaami = I am, to you all, reiterating; aham puriim na gamiSyaami = I am, to city, not, I wish to go; iha eva praayam aasiSye = here, only, fast unto death, I will sit out; me maraNam eva shreyaH = to me, death, alone, is expedient.
"I am reiterating to you all that I do not wish to go to the city of Kishkindha, and here only I sit fasting unto death, as death alone is expedient to me. [4-55-12]
अभिवादन पूर्वम् तु राजा कुशलम् एव च |
अभिवादन पूर्वम् तु राघवौ बलशालिनौ || ४-५५-१३
वाच्यः तातः यवीयान् मे सुग्रीवो वानर ईश्वरः |
13, 14a. balashaalinau = formidable two; raaghavau = Raghava-s; abhivaadana puurvam tu = deference, afore, but [firstly paying deference]; [kushalam eva ca = well-being, thus, also asked about]; vaanara iishvaraH = vanara-s, lord; me yaviiyaan taataH = my, younger, father; raajaa sugriivaH = king, Sugreeva; abhivaadana puurvam tu kushalam = deference, afore, but [firstly paying deference]; eva ca = thus, only; vaacyaH = be asked after.
"On my behalf Raghava-s wellbeing may be enquired firstly paying deference to them, so also the wellbeing of my paternal uncle and king may be enquired, only after paying deference to that lord of vanara-s. [4-55-13, 14a]
आरोग्य पूर्वम् कुशलम् वाच्या माता रुमा च मे || ४-५५-१४
मातरम् चैव मे ताराम् आश्वासयितुम् अर्हथ |
प्रकृत्या प्रिय पुत्रा सा सानुक्रोशा तपस्विनी || ४-५५-१५
विनष्टम् माम् इह श्रुत्वा व्यक्तम् हास्यति जीवितम् |
14b, 15, 16a. me maataa rumaa ca = my, [step-] mother, Ruma, also; aarogya puurvam = [her] healthiness, regarding; kushalam vaacyaa = well-being, be spoken [asked after]; me maataram taaraam caiva = my, of mother, Lady Tara, also thus; aashvaasayitum arhatha = to solace, apt of you; prakR^ityaa saanukroshaa = by her nature, warm-hearted; priya putraa = having cherished, son [who cherishes her more]; tapasvinii = austerely one; saa = she - such as she is - my mother Lady Tara; iha = now; maam vinaSTam shrutvaa = me, as perished one, on hearing; vyaktam jiivitam haasyati = obviously, life, leaves off.
"My step-mother Ruma may be asked after regarding her healthiness. And it will be apt of you to solace my mother Lady Tara, who by her nature is a warm-hearted and austerely lady who cherishes her son more, and such as she is she will obviously leave off her life on hearing that I breathed my last." So said Angada to all monkeys. [4-55-14b, 16a]
एतावत् उक्त्वा वचनम् वृद्धान् तान् अभिवाद्य च || ४-५५-१६
विवेश अंगदो भूमौ रुदन् दर्भेषु दुर्मनाः |
16b, 17a. etaavat vacanam uktvaa = to that point, words, on speaking; taan vR^iddhaan abhivaadya ca = them, older [vanara-s, available there,]on paying deference, also; angadaH = Angada; rudan = while puling; dur mukhH = bad-faced - glum, facedly; bhuumau darbheSu vivesha = on ground, on sacred grass, entered - reclined.
On speaking to that point and after paying deference to older vanara-s available there, Angada puling glum facedly reclined on the sacred grass spread on ground. [4-55-16b, 17a]
तस्य संविशतः तत्र रुदन्तो वानर ऋषभाः || ४-५५-१७
नयनेभ्यः प्रमुमुचुः उष्णम् वै वारि दुःखिताः |
17b, 18a. tasya tatra samvishataH = his [Angada's,] apropos to, his becoming recumbent; vaanara R^iSabhaaH = vanara-s, [other] outstanding ones; duHkhitaaH rudantaH = emotionally, sobbing; nayanebhyaH uSNam vaari = from pairs of eyes, heated [seething,] verily [effusive,] water [teardrops]; pramumucuH = sluiced down.
Apropos to Angada's recumbency on ground, the other outstanding Vanara-s snivellingly sluiced down seethingly effusive teardrops emotionally. [4-55-17b, 18a]
सुग्रीवम् चैव निन्दन्तः प्रशंसन्तः च वालिनम् || ४-५५-१८
परिवार्य अंगदम् सर्वे व्यवस्यन् प्रायम् आसितुम् |
18b, 19a. sarve sugriivam nindantaH = they all, of Sugreeva, disesteeming; vaalinam prashansantaH ca = of Vali, esteeming, also; angadam parivaarya = Angada, gathering around; praayam aasitum = for fast unto death, to sit down; vyavasyan = decided to.
While disesteeming Sugreeva but esteeming Vali, all of the vanara-s have gathered around Angada deciding to sit down for fasting unto death in step with Angada. [4-55-18b, 19a]
तत् वाक्यम् वालि पुत्रस्य विज्ञाय प्लवग ऋषभाः || ४-५५-१९
उपस्पृश्य उदकम् सर्वे प्राक् मुखाः समुपाविशन् |
दक्षिण अग्रेषु दर्भेषु उदक् तीरम् समाश्रिताः || ४-५५-२०
मुमूर्षवओ हरिश्रेष्टा एतत् क्षमम् इति स्म ह |
19b, 20, 21a. vaali putrasya = Vali, son of; tat vaakyam = that, sentence; vij~naaya = on discerning; plavaga R^iSabhaaH = fly-jumpers, best ones; sarve hari shreSTaa = = all, monkey, best ones; etat = all this [as said by Angada]; kshamam iti = appropriate, thus [agreeing]; mumuurSavaH = bent on self-immolation; upaspR^ishya udakam = on touching, water; udak tiiram = northern, shore; samaashritaaH = positioning [themselves]; praak mukhaaH = eastward, facing; dakSiNa agreSu darbheSu = on southerly, edges [of grass,] on sacred grass; sam upaavishan = readily, became decumbent. sma ha = they are, indeed.
Those best ones among fly-jumpers on discerning the words of Angada, the son of Vali, and agreeing to what all said by Angada as appropriate, they positioned themselves on the sacred grass after touching waters sacramentally. The sacred-grass is spread as sacred beds to cast off their lives. The edges of grass blades are positioned southward. As they are on that northern shore of southern ocean, all those best monkeys who are bent on to self-immolation, they became recumbent facing eastward. [4-55-19b, 21a]
रामस्य वन वासम् च क्षयम् दशरथस्य च || ४-५५-२१
जनस्थान वधम् चैव वधम् चैव जटायुषः |
हरणम् चैव वैदेह्या वालिनः च वधम् तथा |
राम कोपम् च वदताम् हरीणाम् भयम् आगतः || ४-५५-२२
21b, 22. raamasya vana vaasam ca = Rama's, forest, living, also; dasharathasya kshayam ca = of Dasharatha, dying, also; janasthaana vadham caiva = Janasthaana's, causing calamity, also thus; jaTaayuSaH vadham caiva = of Jataayu, casualty, also thus; vaidehyaa haraNam caiva = of Vaidehi, stealing, also thus; tathaa = thus; vaalinaH ca vadham = Vali's, slaying; raama kopam ca = Rama's, anger [at Sugreeva]; vadataam = while they are talking - about those topics; hariiNaam bhayam aagataH = for monkeys, dread, came upon [the monkeys.]
An unknown apprehensive dread came upon those monkeys when they discussed Rama's living in forests, Dasharatha's demise, calamity caused to Janasthaana, casualty to Jataayu, like that the stealing of Vaidehi and slaying of Vali. [4-55-21, 22]
Here Maheshvara Tiirtha says that 'an apprehensive dread swept over them subconsciously...' not because of the past episodes, but due to some future events, where their becoming pray to some unknown carnivore, namely Sampaati, is apprehended. Thus, their fasting unto death, as per scriptural sanction is going to fail.
स संविशद्भिः बहुभिः महीधरो
महाअद्रि कूट प्रमितैः प्लवंगमैः |
बभूव सन्नादित निर्दर अन्तरो
भृशम् नदद्भिः जलदैः इव अंबरम् || ४-५५-२३
23. samvishadbhiH = while recumbent; mahaa adri kuuTa pramitaiH = great, mountain, top, mirroring; bahubhiH plavangamaiH = many, by fly-jumpers; bhR^isham = highly; sannaadita = made stridently; nirdara antaraH = caves, entrails; saH mahiidharaH = that, mountain; nadadbhiH = while strident; jaladaiH ambaram iva = [filled] with clouds, skyscape, as with; babhuuva = became.
While those many fly-jumpers who mirror up great mountaintops by their physique are recumbent discussing stridently, the entrails of caves of mountain are rendered strident, and that mountain itself appeared like skyscape filled with strident clouds about to burst a good fortune. [4-55-23]
- - -
इति वाल्मीकि रामायणे आदि काव्ये किष्किन्ध काण्डे पंच पंचाशः सर्गः
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© Dec, 2002, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised : December 04]