Sage Vishvamitra along with others reach the banks of River Ganga and they make their sojourn on that riverbank. There when Rama inquisitively enquires about River Ganga Vishvamitra narrates the legend of Ganga, as to how she is taken to heavens by gods from her father Himalayas.
उपास्य रात्रिशेषं तु शोणाकूले महर्षिभिः |
निशायां सुप्रभातायां विश्वामित्रोऽभ्यभाषत || १-३५-१
1. vishvaamitraH = Viswamitra; raatrisheSam = remaining night ; maharSibhiH shoNaakuule upaasya = on sojourning with great-sages on the bank of Sona [the river] ; nishaayaam suprabhaataayaam = night elapsing, sunny daybreak; abhyabhaaSata = spoke.
On sojourning the remaining night on the bank of river Sona along with great-sages, Viswamitra spoke when that night is elapsing into a sunny daybreak. [1-35-1]
सुप्रभाता निशा राम पूर्वा संध्या प्रवर्तते |
उत्तिष्ठोत्तिष्ठ भद्रं ते गमनायाभिरोचय || १-३५-२
2. raama = oh Rama; nishaa suprabhaataa = night [fared away,] joyous dawn; puurvaa sandhyaa pravartate = eastern, day-spring, is set in; uttiSTha uttiSTha = awake, arise; te bhadram = to you, let safe be; gamanaaya abhirocaya = be inspired to - ready yourself for travel.
"Oh, Rama, night fared into a sunny morning, eastern day-spring is set in, hence awake and arise, you be safe, ready yourself for further travel." [1-35-2]
तच्छ्रुत्वा वचनं तस्य कृत्वा पौर्वाह्णिकक्रियः |
गमनं रोचयामास वाक्यं चेदमुवाच ह || १-३५-३
3. tasya tat vacanam shrutvaa = on hearing his that word; Rama got up; paurvaahNikakriyaH kR^itvaa = on performing early morning religious activities; gamanam rocayaamaasa = shown interest to journey on; idam vaakyam ca uvaaca ha = this, sentence, also, said, indeed.
On hearing the words of Sage Vishvamitra, Rama woke up and on completion of morning time religious activities he readied himself for further journey and indeed spoke this sentence to the sage. [1-35-3]
अयं शोणः शुभजलोऽगाधः पुलिनमण्डितः |
कतरेण पथा ब्रह्मन् संतरिष्यामहे वयम् || १-३५-४
4. brahman = oh Brahman; shubhajalaH = one with auspicious waters; pulinamaNDitaH = decorated with - overspread with sand-dunes, ; ayam shoNaH = this, [river] Sona; agaadhaH = so deep; vayam katareNa pathaa = we, in which of the two, ways; samtariSyaamahe = very, easily cross it over - rather, without a boat
"This River Sona is with auspicious waters and even adorned with dunes, where it is so deep. Oh, Brahman, in which of the two ways, namely by fordless waters or by fordable water with dunes, we have to cross this river?" [1-35-4]
एवमुक्तस्तु रामेण विश्वामित्रोऽब्रवीदिदम् |
एष पंथा मयोद्दिष्टो येन यान्ति महर्षयः || १-३५-५
5. raameNa = by Rama; evam uktaH vishvaamitraH = thus, one who is spoken, Vishvamitra; idam abraviit = said this; maharSayaH yena [panthaaH] yaanti = great-sages, in which [route,] they go; eSaH panthaaH mayaa uddiSTaH = that route is proposed by me.
When Rama spoke to him thus sage Vishvamitra replied, "I propose the same route by which these great sages are going. [1-35-5]
एवमुक्त्वा महर्षयो विश्वमित्रेण धीमता |
पश्यन्तस्ते प्रयाता वै वनानि विविधानि च || १-३५-६
6. dhiimataa vishvamitreNa evam uktvaa = thus said by astute one Vishvamitra ; te maharSayaH = those, great sages; vividhaani vanaani pashyantaH = while beholding divers forests; prayaataaH vai = they travelled, indeed.
Thus spoken by that astute Sage Vishvamitra, the other great sages travelled on, indeed beholding diverse forests and their environs. [1-35-6]
ते गत्वा दूरमध्वानं गतेऽर्धदिवसे तदा |
जाह्नवीं सरितां श्रेष्ठां ददृशुर्मुनिसेविताम् || १-३५-७
7. te duuram adhvaanam gatvaa = they on going a distance on their way; tadaa ardhadivase gate = then, half day, while elapsing; munisevitaam = adored by sages; saritaam shreSThaam = prominent one among rivers; jaahnaviim = River Ganga; dadR^ishuH = they perceived.
On going a distance on their way, and after a lapse of half a day, then they perceived the prominent one among rivers and the one adored by sages, namely River Ganga. [1-35-7]
तां दृष्ट्वा पुण्यसलिलां हंससारससेविताम् |
बभूवुर्मुनयः सर्वे मुदिताः सहराघवाः || १-३५-८
8. puNyasalilaam = one with pious waters; hamsasaarasasevitaam = adored by swans and saarasa [waterfowls] ; taam dR^iSTvaa = on seeing at her [Ganga] ; saharaaghavaaH = along with Raghava-s, Rama and Lakshmana; sarve munayaH muditaaH babhuuvuH = all, saints became delighted.
On seeing River Ganga with her pious waters and adored by swans and saarasa waterfowls, all the sages felt delighted together with both of the Raghava-s, namely Rama and Lakshmana. [1-35-8]
तस्यास्तीरे तदा सर्वे चक्रुर्वासपरिग्रहम् |
ततः स्नात्वा यथान्यायं संतर्प्य पितृदेवताः || १-३५-९
हुत्वा चैवाग्निहोत्राणि प्राश्य चामृतवद्धविः |
विविशुर्जाह्नवीतीरे शुभा मुदितमानसाः || १-३५-१०
विश्वामित्रं महात्मानं परिवार्य समंततः |
9, 10, 11a. tadaa sarve = then, all; tasyaaH tiire = on her, banks; aavaasaparigraham cakruH = they have done taking sojourn - they camped there; tataH snaatvaa = then, taking bath; yathaanyaayam = as per custom; pitR^idevataaH = to fatherly gods - to manes; samtarpya = offered oblations; agnihotraaNi hutvaa ca eva = enkindled ritual fire, also, thus - performed fire oblations; amR^itavat = ambrosia like; haviH ca praashya = on dining oblation items, also; muditamaanasaaH = contented at hearts - in oblating at river Ganga; mahaatmaanam vishvaamitram = great-souled one, Viswamitra; samantataH parivaarya = all around, surrounding; shubhaa jaahnaviitiire = on banks of propitious Ganga; vivishuH = they perched.
Then they sojourned on the riverbank of Ganga, and next on taking bath in Ganga they have customarily offered that river's water as oblations to their manes. After that, on enkindling the ritual-fire they have also offered fire-oblations into it for gods. Later, dining on their part of those ambrosian oblations with which they have oblated the fire, those sages perched on the propitious banks of Ganga, surrounding the great-souled Vishvamitra from all sides, to the contentment of their heart in having performed religious chores on the riverbank of Ganga. [1-35-9, 10, 11a]
विष्टिताश्च यथान्यायं राघवौ च यथा अर्हम् |
संप्रहृष्टमना रामो विश्वामित्रमथाब्रवीत् || १-३५-११
11b. viSTitaaH ca = [when sages are] sitting at ease; raaghavau ca = Rama and Lakshmana, also; yathaanyaayam yathaa arham = as per custom, as admissible; atha = then; raamaH = Rama; samprahR^ manaasa = very well gladdened at heart; vishvaamitram abraviit = spoke to Vishvamitra.
When sages are sitting at ease then even Rama and Lakshmana sat down according to their admissibility and custom of sitting before their teachers, and then Rama highly gladdened at heart has spoken to Vishvamitra. [1-35-11]
भगवन् श्रोतुमिच्छामि गङ्गां त्रिपथगां नदीम् |
त्रैलोक्यं कथमाक्रम्य गता नदनदीपतिम् || १-३५-१२
12. bhagavan = oh god; tripathagaam = coursing in three ways; ga~Ngaam nadiim = about Ganga, river; shrotum icChaami = I wish to listen; trailokyam aakramya = on pervading three worlds; nadanadiipatim = husband of rivulet and river - ocean; katham gataa = how, she reached.
"Oh, godly sage, I wish to listen about Ganga, the river that has a trinal course, and as to how she is reaching the husband of rivulets and rivers, namely the ocean, on pervading all the three worlds." Thus Rama asked Vishvamitra. [1-35-12]
चोदितो रामवाक्येन विश्वामित्रो महामुनिः |
वृद्धिं जन्म च गंगाया वक्तुमेवोपचक्रमे || १-३५-१३
13. raamavaakyena coditH = motivated by Rama's words; vishvaamitrH mahaamuniH = Vishvamitra, eminent-sage; gangaayaaH = of Ganga; janma vR^iddhim ca eva = emergence, progression, also, that way; vaktum upacakrame = thus commenced to narrate.
Motivated by Rama's words the eminent-sage Vishvamitra commenced to narrate about the emergence and that way even about the progression of River Ganga. [1-35-13]
शैलेन्द्रो हिमवान् राम धातूनामाकरो महान् |
तस्य कन्याद्वयं राम रूपेणाप्रतिमं भुवि || १-३५-१४
14. raama = oh Rama; dhaatuunaam mahaan aakaraH = greatest repository - treasure trove for minerals; himavaan [naama] = Himavan [named]; shailendraH = mountains' lord [is there]; tasya = to him; ruupeNa = by virtue of comeliness; bhuvi apratimam = on earth, without another - unequalled; kanyaadvayam = pair of daughters; is there.
"The lordly mountain Himavan who is the greatest treasure trove of minerals, Rama, also treasures up a pair of daughters who by their comeliness are unequalled on earth. [1-35-14]
या मेरुदुहिता राम तयोर्माता सुमध्यमा |
नाम्ना मेना मनोज्ञा वै पत्नी हिमवतः प्रिया || १-३५-१५
15. raama = oh Rama; naamnaa menaa [naama] = by name, Mena, [she who is renowned like that]; yaa meruduhitaa = she who is, Mt. Meru's daughter; sumadhyamaa = to that slender-waisted one; manoj~naa = fascinating one; himavataH patnii priyaa = Himavan's dear wife; tayoH maataa vai = their, mother, indeed.
"The slender-waisted and fascinating daughter of Mt. Meru, oh, Rama, renowned by her name Mena, is the dear wife of Himavan and the mother of those two daughters, indeed. [1-35-15]
तस्यां गंगेयमभवज्ज्येष्ठा हिमवतः सुता |
उमा नाम द्वितीयाभूत्कन्या तस्यैव राघव || १-३५-१६
16. raaghava = oh Raghava; iyam gangaa = this, Ganga; himavataH= Himavan's; jyeSThaa sutaa = as elder, daughter; tasyaam abhavat = from her [Mena,] emerged; tasya eva = to him, that way; [naamnaa = by name]; umaa naama = Uma, renowned as; dvitiiyaa kanyaa abhuut = second, daughter, became - emerged.
"This Ganga has emerged as an elder daughter to Himavan through Mena, oh, Raghava, and that way a girl renowned by the name Uma has become a second daughter to him. [1-35-16]
अथ ज्येष्ठां सुराः सर्वे देवकार्यचिकीर्षया |
शैलेन्द्रं वरयामासुर्गंगां त्रिपथगां नदीम् || १-३५-१७
17. atha = later; sarve suraaH = all, gods; devakaaryacikiirSayaa = interested in divine purpose; tripathagaam nadiim = who will ultimately become - three way cruising, river; jyeSThaam gangaam = elder one, Ganga is; shailendram varayaamaasuH = mountain, lordly one - Himavan, sought him.
"Later, all of the divinities intending to fulfil a divine purpose have sought the lordly mountain Himavan to spare Ganga, who is scheduled to become a tri-way-cruising river. [1-35-17]
ददौ धर्मेण हिमवांस्तनयां लोकपावनीम् |
स्वच्छंदपथगां गंगां त्रैलोक्यहितकाम्यया || १-३५-१८
18. himavaan dharmeNa = Himavan, with a righteous mind; trailokyahitakaamyayaa = hopeful of welfare for three worlds ; lokapaavaniim = one who is a sanctifier of worlds; svacChandapathagaam = on who flows in her way volitionally; tanayaam gangaam dadau = he spared daughter Ganga.
"With a righteous thinking and hopeful of the welfare in triadic world, Himavan then spared his daughter Ganga whose flow is at her own volition. [1-35-18]
प्रतिगृह्य त्रिलोकार्थं त्रिलोकहितकांक्षिणः |
गंगामादाय तेऽगच्छन् कृतार्थेनान्तरात्मना || १-३५-१९
19. tataH = then; te [devaaH] = those, [gods]; trilokahitakaankShiNaH [kaariNaH] = wishing well-being for three world's [she who causes weal]; trilokaartham = purpose of three world's; gangaam = Ganga; pratigR^ihya aadaaya = in turn taking [on receiving, welcoming,] took with them; kR^itaarthena antaraatmanaa = fulfilled of purpose, in inner soul; agacChan = came back - to heaven.
"Those divinities who are the well-wishers of the well-being of tri-world welcomed Ganga, who is incidentally intended for the purpose of the tri-world, and they came back to heaven fetching Ganga with them, with a heartfelt joy for their purpose is fulfilled. [1-35-19]
या चान्या शैलदुहिता कन्यासीद्रघुनंदन |
उग्रं सा व्रतमास्थाय तपस्तेपे तपोधना || १-३५-२०
20. raghunandana = oh Raghu's descendent; anyaa shailaduhitaa = other, mountain's [Himavanta's] daughter; yaa kanyaa aasiit = which, unmarried girl, is there; saa = she; tapodhanaa = her ascesis is her wealth; ugram vratam aasthaaya = taking hold of rigorous devoutness; tapaH tepe = performed sacrament.
"The other daughter of Himavanta, oh, Raghu's descendent, that unmarried girl namely Uma, she performed a rigorous sacrament taking hold of a supreme devoutness as her ascesis itself is her wealth. [1-35-20]
उग्रेण तपसा युक्तां ददौ शैलवरः सुताम् |
रुद्रायाप्रतिरूपाय उमां लोकनमस्कृताम् || १-३५-२१
21. shailavaraH = best mountain [Himavanta]; ugreNa tapasaa yuktaam = one who is - unified with rigorous sacrament; lokanamaskR^itaam = one who is - adored by worlds; sutaam umaam = daughter, Uma is; apratiruupaaya = one with - no coequal in aspect [unequalled one, unique god]; rudraaya dadau = to Rudra, gave - in marriage.
"As for Uma who is unified with her rigorous sacrament and who is adored by all the world, that best one among mountains Himavanta gave such a daughter to the unique god Rudra. [1-35-21]
एते ते शैलराजस्य सुते लोकनमस्कृते |
गंगा च सरितां श्रेष्ठा उमादेवी च राघव || १-३५-२२
22. raaghava = oh Raghava; saritaam shreSThaa gangaa ca = prominent one among rivers Ganga, also; umaadevii ca = Uma Devi, also; ete te shailaraajasya = these, they two, mountain king's - Himavan's; lokanamaskR^ite sute = daughters revered by world.
"Oh, Raghava, the prominent one among rivers namely Ganga and Uma Devi as well, these are the two daughters of the king of mountains that are highly revered by the world. [1-35-22]
एतत्ते सर्वमाख्यातं यथा त्रिपथगामिनी |
खं गता प्रथमं तात गतिं गतिमतां वर || १-३५-२३
23. gatimataam vara = best one in cruising [of life] of people ; or, one who has beautiful gait - Rama; taata = oh dear boy; tripathagaaminii = cruising three way; prathamam yathaa = firstly, as to how; kham gataa = cruised to heavens ; etat gatim = all about, cruising; te sarvam aakhyaatam = to you, all in all, is related.
"Dear boy Rama with beautiful gait, as to how the triply coursing Ganga has cruised to heaven in the first phase, I have related all about that cruise to you. [1-35-23]
The three-way coursing of the river is firstly as Ganga in the lap of Himalayas. Then when she cruised heavenward with divinities as Deva Ganga, or Mandaakini or Sudiirghika, it is second. Later, when she came to earth from heaven and gone into ocean and even to netherworlds as Jahnavi, it is the third. There are variations for this. Some say that the river's entry into sky is the first, by taking words gatimataam vara, gati and deriving meaning as - which sky grants a path for all moving things etc., and the next is her entry to heaven, and nextly her coming to earth. And some say that gods have not left her in middle of the sky to come to heaven at a later time, and hence her three courses are as Ganga, Mandaakini, and Jahnavi.
सैषा सुरनदी रम्या शैलेन्द्रतनया तदा |
सुरलोकं समारूढा विपापा जलवाहिनी || १-३५-२४
24. ramyaa = marvellous one; vipaapaa = without sins; jalavaahinii = one that flows in the form of waters; saa eSaa = such as she is; shailendratanayaa = mountain lord's daughter; tadaa = then; suranadii = divine river; on becoming; suralokam samaaruuDhaa = well ascended divinity's abode [to heaven].
"As such, that marvellous and sinless daughter of the lordly mountain Himavanta, ever-flowing in the form of water, ascended to the abode of divinities and became devaganga , Divine River. [1-35-24]
इति वाल्मीकिरामायणे आदिकाव्ये बालकाण्डे पंचत्रिंशः सर्गः
© 2002, Desiraju Kumari [Revised : July 04]