The Marriage of Sheetha with Rama
We need not wait for any invitation or wedding card or call for this marriage, as all are welcome, equally and individually. Let us go there straight, without any introductions and preliminaries.
यस्मिंस्तु दिवसे राजा चक्रे गोदानमुत्तमम् |
तस्मिंस्तु दिवसे शूरो युधाजित् समुपेयिवान् || १-७३-१
1. raajaa = king Dasharatha; yasmin divase uttamam godaanam cakre = on which day made impressive cow donation [or, initiatory rituals] ; tasmin tu divase = on that, but, day; shuuraH yudhaajit samupeyivaan = valiant, Yuddhajit, turned up.
On which day the king Dasharatha made the impressive cow donations or, initiatory rites, on that day alone the valiant Yudhaajit turned up. [1-73-1]
पुत्रः केकयराजस्य साक्षाद्भरतमातुलः |
दृष्ट्वा पृष्ट्वा च कुशलं राजानमिदमब्रवीत् || १-७३-२
2. kekayaraajasya putraH = Kekaya king's, son; saakSaat bharatamaatulaH = direct, Bharata's maternal uncle; that Yutaajit; raajaanam dR^iSTvaa = having seen king Dasharatha; kushalam pR^iSTvaa = having asked wellbeing ; idam abraviit = said this.
Yudhaajit, the son of Kekaya king and the brother of Kaikeyi, thus the direct maternal uncle of Bharata, having seen and asked after the wellbeing of Dasharatha said this to him. [1-73-2]
केकयाधिपती राजा स्नेहात् कुशलमब्रवीत् |
येषां कुशलकामोऽसि तेषां संप्रत्यनामयम् || १-७३-३
3. kekayaadhipatiH raajaa = Kekaya's ruler, king; snehaat kushalam abraviit = friendlily [affectionately,] asked after wellbeing; yeSaam = whose; kushalakaamaH asi = wellbeing [of all,] you are interested; teSaam = to them; samprati = presently; anaamayam = hale [and healthy.]
The ruler and king of Kekaya, viz., my father and your father-in-law, has affectionately asked after the wellbeing of all, and in whose wellbeing you are interested at my place, they are all hale and healthy as of now... [1-73-3]
स्वस्रीयं मम राजेन्द्र द्रष्टुकामो महीपतिः |
तदर्थमुपयातोऽहमयोध्यां रघुनंदन || १-७३-४
4. raghunandana = oh Raghu's legatee; raajendra = oh best king; mahiipatiH = lord of land [king of Kekaya, my father]; mama svasriiyam = my, sister's son - my nephew - Kaikeyi's Bharata; draSTukaamaH = interested to see; tat artham = for, that reason; aham ayodhyaam upayaataH = I am sent to Ayodhya.
Oh, Raghu's legatee, oh, best king, my father and the king of Kekaya is interested to see my sister Kaikeyi's son, Bharata, and for that reason I am sent to Ayodhya... [1-73-4]
श्रुत्वा त्वहमयोध्यायां विवाहार्थं तवात्मजान् |
मिथिलामुपयातांस्तु त्वया सह महीपते || १-७३-५
त्वरयाभ्युपयातोऽहं द्रष्टुकामः स्वसुः सुतम् |
5, 6a. mahiipate = oh lord of land; tava aatmajaan = your, son's; vivaahaartham = purpose of marriage ; tvayaa saha = along with you; mithilaam upayaataan = went to Mithila; ayodhyaayaam aham shrutvaa tu = I have heard in Ayodhya, on my part; aham draSTukaamaH = I am wishing to see; svasuH sutam = sister's, son [Bharata]; tvarayaa abhyupayaataH [abhi-upa-yaata] = promptly, travelled here.
"Oh, lord of the land, in Ayodhya I have heard that you went to Mithila along with your sons for their marriages, and wishing to see my sister's son Bharata I promptly travelled here..." Thus Yudhaajit told Dasharatha. [1-73-5, 6a]
Is this entry of this maternal uncle of Bharata a forced one or does this have any bearing on the flow of epic... is a doubt, though not a question. Further he is saying 'my sister's son' i.e., Bharata alone, instead of 'all my nephews...' Whether this episode has a bearing on future events or not, one maama is entered in Indian epics, like this one and Shakuni maama in Maha Bharata.
अथ राजा दशरथः प्रियातिथिमुपस्थितम् || १-७३-६
दृष्ट्वा परमसत्कारैः पूजार्हं समपूजयत् |
6b-7a. atha raajaa dasharathaH = then, king, Dasharatha; priyaatithim upasthitam = adorable guest, who arrived [in his presence]; dR^iSTvaa = on seeing about; puujaarham = he who is merited for adoration - Yudhaajit; paramasatkaaraiH = with full observances; samapuujayat = well adored
Then king Dasharatha on seeing the adorable guest who arrived in his presence, and who is a merited one for adoration, Dasharatha adored Yudhaajit well, with full observances. [1-73-6b, 7a]
ततस्तामुषितो रात्रिं सह पुत्रैर्महात्मभिः || १-७३-७
प्रभाते पुनरुत्थाय कृत्वा कर्माणि तत्त्ववित् |
ऋषींस्तदा पुरस्कृत्य यज्ञवाटमुपागमत् || १-७३-८
7b, 8. tataH = then; mahaaaatmabhiH putraiH saha = along with noble-minded sons; taam raatrim uSitaH = resting on that night; tattvavit = duty-bound one Dasharatha; prabhaate punaH utthaaya = on getting up again in morning ; karmaaNi kR^itvaa = on performing [morning] observances; tadaa R^iSiin puraskR^itya = then, sages, keeping in forefront; yaj~navaaTam upaagamat = arrived at Vedic-ritual hall.
Then on taking rest for that night along with his noble-minded sons, and again on getting up in the next morning, and on performing morning-observances as a duty-bound king, Dasharatha arrived at the hall of Vedic-ritual, keeping the sages in his forefront. [1-73-7b-8]
He arrived at the Vedic-ritual hall that he was frequenting for the last few days. Unless invited the bridegroom's party will not enter the marriage hall, and nowadays such an invitation includes a small function also, called varapuuja as every bridegroom will be looked up to as Vishnu, and the bride as Lakshmi. The marriage hall is constructed nearby this Vedic-ritual hall, thus it is to be assumed.
युक्ते मुहूर्ते विजये सर्वाभरणभूषितैः |
भ्रातृभिः सहितो रामः कृतकौतुकमंगलः || १-७३-९
वसिष्ठं पुरतः कृत्वा महर्षीनपरानपि |
9-10a. yukte vijaye muhuurte = appropriate, opportune hour of Victory; sarvaabharaNabhuuSitaiH = adorned with all jewellery; bhraatR^ibhiH sahitaH = together with brothers; raamaH = Rama; kR^itakautukamangalaH = having performed, auspicious ceremony for marriage-thread [tied to wrist - usually males do it - not mangala suutra] ; vasiSTham = with Vashishta; aparaan api maharSiin = even other eminent-saint; purataH kR^itvaa = keeping, ahead; [upaagamat = reached his father Dasharatha.]
Rama arrived at his father together with all of his brothers, keeping sage Vashishta and other eminent-saint ahead of them, on an opportune and appropriate hour called 'Victory...' and all the bridegrooms are adorned with all kinds of jewellery appropriate for the wedding time, and all have performed the auspicious ceremony for marriage-thread, conducted prior to the marriage and, all have thread-bands tied around their wrists, as they all have performed an auspicious ceremony antecedent to marriage ceremony. [1-73-9, 10a]
The ceremony for the marriage thread, the sacred thread of marriage for knotting as a necklace of the bride, mangala- suutra is nowadays mixed up with gauri-puuja, and this gauri-puuja took precedence of that ceremony, because gauri-puuja, took its roots in the auxiliary Ramayana-s, where Seetha is said to have gone to Goddess Parvati's temple, prior to her marriage, to perform gauri-puuja, pledging herself to Rama. The thread bands tied at the wrists of both the bride and bridegroom is as per wedding time vows, to bring them under the pledge of marriage, until its consummation. Indian marriages are time-oriented and every function has to happen on the appointed hour. Hence, the arrival of bridegrooms is also on an opportune hour, which astrologically brings forth success of that event. But some say that this auspicious hour Vijaya occurs in the early part of the day, where this marriage is occurring in the later part of day, hence this time is to be reckoned as one that acquires some victory later in the epic.
Brides are not the lone category of people destined to wear jewellery. But bridegrooms are also asked to wear golden ornaments, at least one, on such occasions. The metal gold is said to contain some effect by which a man or a woman will be benefited, health wise: mR^itaa durluptam madhumat suvarNam dhanam jananam ruNam daarayiSunam... after all gold is gold.
वशिष्ठो भगवानेत्य वैदेहमिदमब्रवीत् || १-७३-१०
राजा दशरथो राजन् कृतकौतुकमङ्गलैः |
पुत्रैर्नरवरश्रेष्ठ दातारमभिकांक्षते || १-७३-११
10b, 11. bhagavaan vashiSTHaH = godly, Vashishta; vaideham etya = going to Videha king; idam abraviit = said [to Janaka] said; naravarashreSTha = oh best one among best people; raajan = oh king; raajaa dasharathaH = king, Dasharatha; kR^itakautukamangalaiH = having performed, auspicious ceremony for marriage-thread; putraiH = with such sons; daataaram abhikaankSate = looking forward for donor [of brides].
Then that godly sage Vashishta on going from Vedic-ritual hall to marriage hall said this to Janaka, "Oh, best one among best people, oh, king Janaka, having performed the auspicious marriage-thread ceremony, Dasharatha along with his sons is looking forward for the donor... [1-73-10b, 11]
दातृप्रतिग्रहीतृभ्यां सर्वार्थाः संभवन्ति हि |
स्वधर्मं प्रतिपद्यस्व कृत्वा वैवाह्यमुत्तमम् || १-७३-१२
12. sarvaarthaaH [puruSaarthaaH] = all values of life; daatR^ipratigrahiitR^ibhyaam = beneficiary and benefactors ; sambhavanti hi = will happen, isn't it; uttamam vaivaahyam kR^itvaa = on making happen best marriage ; svadharmam pratipadyasva = in turn you achieve your devoir.
"In marriages all the puruSaartha-s , the component values of life, namely rightness, riches, revelries, and results of final release will be occurring only if the benefactor and beneficiary meet, isn't it. Hence let king Dasharatha come, and then on actualising this best marriage you too will be doing your best devoir as royal priest... [1-73-12]
Hindu marriage is not a contractual obligation because it protracts over seven life cycles of that couple. Therefore, it is calculated correctly and celebrated sacredly.
इत्युक्तः परमोदारो वसिष्ठेन महात्मना |
प्रत्युवाच महातेजा वाक्यं परमधर्मवित् || १-७३-१३
13. mahaatmanaa vasiSThena iti uktaH = by right honourable, Vashishta, when said in this way; paramodaaraH = unreservedly generous [Janaka]; mahaatejaaH = definitely valiant; paramadharmavit = profound knower of probity - Janaka; vaakyam pratyuvaaca = replied sentence.
Janaka is not just a decidedly valiant king but he is the profound knower of probity also, besides being an unreservedly generous king, hence he has already made all arrangements, and when he is spoken in this way by Vashishta that king replied this sentence to that right honourable Vashishta. [1-73-13]
कः स्थितः प्रतिहारो मे कस्याज्ञा संप्रतीक्ष्यते |
स्वगृहे को विचारोऽस्ति यथा राज्यमिदं तव || १-७३-१४
14. me = my; pratihaaraH = against [entry,] preventer [doorman]; kaH sthitaH = who, is there; kasya aaj~naa sampratiikSyate = for whose order, you [all] intently seeing [waiting with bated breath] towards; svagR^ihe = in own house; kaH vicaaraH asti = what, hesitancy, is there; idam raajyam tava yathaa = this kingdom is as good as yours.
Who is that doorman that prevents your entry? Or, for whose orders you all await with a bated breath? Do you hesitate in your own house, or what? This kingdom is as good as yours... isn't so... [1-73-14]
These are neither questions nor surprises, but the usual retorts and repartees usually employed during wedding time by both parties, sandhi-s of northerners and sammandi-s, of southerners, i.e., the wedding parties. By these rebuttals and ripostes, both the parties come close with each other's family habits or with its members.
कृतकौतुकसर्वस्वा वेदिमूलमुपागताः |
मम कन्या मुनिश्रेष्ठ दीप्ता वह्नेरिवार्चिषः || १-७३-१५
15. munishreSTha = oh eminent-saint; mama kanyaa = my, maids; kR^itakautukasarvasvaa [mangalaa] = absolutely performing marriage-thread [auspicious ceremony]; diiptaa vahneH arciSaH iva = as with jets of flame of fire; vedimuulam = at the base of Altar of Ritual-fire; upaagataaH = arrived near - they are already at the Fire-Altar.
Oh, eminent-saint Vashishta, on absolutely performing the auspicious ceremony for the marriage-thread, and thereby tying thread-band at wrists my daughters have already arrived, and they are at the base of the Altar of Fire, like the irradiant jets of flames of radiant fire... [1-73-15]
सद्योऽहं त्वत्प्रतीक्षोऽस्मि वेद्यामस्यां प्रतिष्ठितः |
अविघ्नं कुरुतां राजा किमर्थं हि विलम्ब्यते || १-७३-१६
16. sadyaH [sajjaH] = already [ready]; aham = I am; asyaam vedyaam pratiShitaH = remaining in this Altar; tvat pratiikSaH asmi = I am waiting for you; avighnam kurutaam = let him do [everything] without deterrents of time - let this marriage be performed without the impediments owing to bad times of the day - varjatithi; raajaa kimartham vilambyate hi = for what reason king is dawdling, indeed.
"I am already ready and awaiting for you remaining at this Altar of Fire. Let everything be done indeed without any deterrents. What for the king Dasharatha is dawdling..." So said Janaka to Vashishta. [1-73-16]
And Vashishta reported this to Dasharatha, and Dasharatha and his coterie then started a wedding-walk, which usually will be dillydallying, inching and poking along, very leisurely. Even today this custom, not custom exactly, the habit of 'wedding-walks' is there and a baraat 'pageant of bridegroom's party' covers two furlong distance in two hours, or even more, keeping the bride's party on tenterhooks.
तद्वाक्यं जनकेनोक्तं श्रुत्वा दशरथस्तदा |
प्रवेशयामास सुतान् सर्वानृषिगणानपि || १-७३-१७
17. tadaa = then; dasharathaH = Dasharatha; janakena uktam tat vaakyam shrutvaa = on hearing that sentence said by Janaka; sutaan = sons; sarvaan R^iSigaNaan api = all of the assemblages of sages, even; praveshayaamaasa = started to enter - the marriage hall.
On hearing that sentence of Janaka, then Dasharatha started towards marriage hall, and then he started to enter his sons one by one, four in all, into marriage hall along with all of the assemblages of sages. [1-73-17]
ततो राजा विदेहानां वशिष्ठमिदमब्रवीत् |
कारयस्व ऋषे सर्वानृषिभिः सह धार्मिक || १-७३-१८
रामस्य लोकरामस्य क्रियां वैवाहिकीं प्रभो |
18, 19a. tataH = then; videhaanaam raajaa = king of Videha bloodline [Janaka]; vashiSTham = to Vashishta; idam abraviit = said this way; dhaarmika = oh knower of punctilios; R^iSe = oh Brahma-sage; prabho = oh masterly sage; R^iSibhiH saha = along with sages; lokaraamasya = rejoicer of world; raamasya = Rama's; vaivaahikiim kriyaam = marriage oriented, works; sarvaan kaarayasva = make all happen.
Then that king from Videha bloodline, Janaka, said in this way to Vashishta, "Oh, the knower of punctilios, oh, Brahma-sage, oh, masterly sage, along with other sages you make happen all of the marriage ceremonies of Rama, the rejoicer of the world..." Thus Janaka spoke to Vashishta. [1-73-18, 19a]
तथेत्युक्त्वा तु जनकं वशिष्ठो भगवानृषिः || १-७३-१९
विश्वामित्रं पुरस्कृत्य शतानंदं च धार्मिकम् |
प्रपामध्ये तु विधिवद्वेदीं कृत्वा महातपाः || १-७३-२०
अलञ्चकार तां वेदीं गन्धपुष्पैः समंततः |
सुवर्णपालिकाभिश्च चित्रकुम्भैश्च साङ्कुरैः || १-७३-२१
अंकुराढ्यैः शरावैश्च धूपपात्रैः सधूपकैः |
शंखपात्रैः श्रुवैः स्रुग्भिः पात्रैरर्घ्यादिपूजितैः || १-७३-२२
लाजपूर्णैश्च पात्रीभिरक्षितैरपि संस्कृतैः |
19b, 20, 21, 22, 23a. bhagavaan mahaatapaaH vashiSTHaH R^iSiH = godly, sage of great ascesis, sage Vashishta; janakam = to Janaka; tathaa iti uktvaa = so be it, thus, on saying; dhaarmikam vishvaamitram = virtuous one, Vishvamitra; shataanandam ca = sage Shataananda, also; puraskR^itya = keeping ahead; prapaamadhye = in mid-point of that cool-thatched manorial-shed; vidhivat vediim kR^itvaa = procedurally on arranging Altar of Fire; gandhapuSpaiH = with sandal paste and flowers; suvarNapaalikaabhiH ca = with golden concave-lids, also; saankuraiH = with sprigs; [Chidra = with holes - pots with holes to let water out] ; citrakumbhaiH ca = with variously coloured, pots / handy vessels, also; ankuraaDhyaiH = full of sprigs; sharaavaiH ca = concave earthen-lids, also; sadhuupakaiH dhuupapaatraiH = with fumes, incense censers; shankhapaatraiH = conch-shell vessels; shruvaiH = with short-handled scoops; srugbhiH = long-handled scoops; arghyaadipuujitaiH [puuritaiH] = sanctified [filled with] with oblatory [liquid items] and others ; paatraiH = with such vessels; laajapuurNaiH paatriibhiH = vessels filled with toasted rice flakes ; samskR^itaiH akShitaiH api = well treated [with turmeric powder,] with sacred rice [vessels filled with]; taam vediim = that, Altar of Fire; samantataH = all over; alam = easily / decorations; cakaara = made - sanctified.
Thus said, that godly sage Vashishta on saying, "so be it," to Janaka, embarked on arranging Altar of Fire keeping sage Vishvamitra and the virtuous sage Shataananda afore of him, and that sage with great ascesis, Vashishta, has arranged an Altar of Fire in the midpoint of the cool-thatched manorial-marriage-shed, decorating it with sandal paste and flowers. Then he promptly sanctified variously coloured handy vessels, and lid-like concave earthen vessels, which are full with just sprouted sprigs, and he sanctified even other golden vessels, censers with fumes of incenses, conch-shell like vessels, and short handled wooden scoops for scooping oblatory items from vessels for putting it in long-handled scoops, and long-handled wooden scoops to drop those oblatory items into Ritual-fire, and vessels filled with oblatory items like ghee, water, milk etc., and vessels filled with toasted rice-flakes and vessels filled with holy yellow-rice duly treated with turmeric, and he sanctified all articles of wedding ceremony by sprinkling holy-yellow-rice, as a kind of dry-ablution. [1-73-19b, 20, 21, 22, 23a]
These are some of the usual paraphernalia for marriage ceremony even now. The sprouting sprigs are symbolic for the prospective sprigs from this marriage, and rice-flakes for the abundance of livelihood of the couple. Usually the concave lid like vessels will be filled with black cotton soil, and on them nine varieties of grain navadhaanya will be sprinkled to obtain sprigs. Later they are to be kept sacred for some days, watering daily, and then can be implanted in earth, if they survive. There are hosts of shops specialised to sell these items and the shopkeeper firstly asks for information 'for bride's side or for bridegroom's side?' And if we say, 'we are from bride's side' a long-list is presented, [while bridegroom's side will have a shorter list of items,] and then the shopkeeper mercifully asks 'how much is the dowry?' If we say this much or that much, he will present a Victorian model push-close pull-open velvet bag. If we exclaim 'what for is this, priest has not listed this' then he politely says, 'the priests of these days are unaware of customs and the dowry is to be put in that velvet bag and then given, as a royal presentation...' And if we say 'we are drained out by the dowry, wherefrom we give royal presentations...' then he will spew fire on us saying 'you spend so much on dowry, can't you purchase its velvet bag...' and thereafter a sermon follows about the dying Indian culture at the onslaught of westernisation, while he starts throwing the packets of navadhaanya etc., as though he is giving alms to the beggar. Though Janaka has not purchased such a bag of dowry, he has some more problems with this marriage. A discussion on this is there at later part. Here the sprouted sprigs are the sprouting avengers on the evil, called Ravana.
दर्भैः समैः समास्तीर्य विधिवन्मंत्रपूर्वकम् || १-७३-२३
अग्निमाधाय तं वेद्यां विधिमंत्रपुरस्कृतम् |
जुहावाग्नौ महातेजा वशिष्ठो मुनिपुंगव || १-७३-२४
23b, 24. mahaatejaaH = great resplendent; munipungava = eminent-saint; vashiSThaH = Vashishta; samaiH = even-sized; darbhaiH = with sacred grass; vidhivat = customarily; mantrapuurvakam = synchronising with Vedic-chants; samaastiirya = neatly overlaid; vidhimantrapuraskR^itam = reverently, preceding [in tune] Vedic-hymns; tam vedyaam = on that, Altar of Fire; agnim aadhaaya = on taking [preparing with two sticks, arani] fire; agnau juhaava = effused oblational liquids in Altar of Fire.
Then that great resplendent and eminent-saint Vashishta neatly overlaid even-sized sacred grass on that Altar of Fire synchronising with Vedic-chants, and on preparing Ritual-fire by rubbing two wooden sticks, called araNi , he placed that fire in the pit of Altar, which is aflame now, and then reverently and in tune with the Vedic-hymns he effused oblational liquids into that Altar of Fire, with short-handled and long-handled wooden scoops. [1-73-23b, 24]
ततः सीतां समानीय सर्वाभरणभूषिताम् |
समक्षमग्नेः संस्थाप्य राघवाभिमुखे तदा || १-७३-२५
अब्रवीज्जनको राजा कौसल्यानंदवर्धनम् |
25, 26a. tataH = then; raajaa janakaH = king, Janaka; sarvaabharaNabhuuSitaam = decorated with all jewellery ; siitaam samaaniiya = leading forth Seetha; agneH samakSham = before Fire [Altar of Fire] ; raaghavaabhimukhe = face [face to face, en face] towards Raghava; samsthaapya = on positioning; tadaa = then; kausalyaanandavardhanam = enhancer of Kausalya's rejoice [to Rama]; abraviit = addressed.
Then that king Janaka led forth Seetha, who by now is decorated with every variety of bridal jewellery, and on positioning her en face Raghava in the presence of Altar of Fire, then Janaka addressed Rama who is the enhancer of his mother Kausalya's rejoice. [1-73-25, 26a]
By the way, where is this Kausalya? Does Rama enrich her happiness without bringing her to his marriage? We have not heard of her or of other queens or hosts of his other wives, for the last three, four days. Has she come, at all? - Yes, she has come and she is physically present - is the argument of some, basing on Valmiki's style of unrecorded accounts on trivial, or matter of fact scenes. They are implied and implicit. Dasharatha has performed some cow donations, religious functions etc., which he is not supposed to do without his wife at his side. These ladies are implicitly included in the first verse of sixty-ninth chapter: sopaadhyaayaH sabaandhavaH 'with teachers, with relatives...' and Dasharatha has no near relatives, not exactly relatives, but family, other than his queens and sons. So, they all are in 'et cetera... and others' cadre at present. Other way round, it is said in Kshatriya-s only male members will go and get the bride, which has no reasonable or tenable import, as far as marriages are concerned, and where every marriage concerns only with womenfolk and their panoply.
Seetha is said to have all bridal jewellery, which is not odd or particular to this corner of globe. But it is oddish and exotic jewellery if the bride is from well-to-do family or from royal family. Though not all, some of the jewellery items that are almost extinct now are listed here. siimanta-pralamba a pendant clipped at back of head, dangle through the central parting of head-hair, onto the crown of head, with nine-gem-stud locket; shiroja-suuci diamond studded hair pins on either side of head above ears; naasaabharanam a round nasal ring; naasabhuSaNam single or a pair of nine-gems studded nasal ornament; karNaabharaNa, taaTanka, karNikaa various kinds of earrings with dangling cups, to which trinket bells dangle; shata-yaSTika hundred stringed pearl necklace; anukanThii, muktaavalii, graiveyikam and many other kinds of necklaces; mekhala three finger width golden cincture, studded with nine-gems, and with fine golden chains dangling like festoons; saptakii seven stringed girdle string, where the strings dangle onto hip, with expanding festoons; keyuuram bicep-lets; kankaNam bracelets and bangles from wrist halfway up forearm; maNi-manjiira, tulaa-koTi, paadaangada ankle-let with kinkiNii trinket bell-globules; cuuDaamaNi a circular jewel at bun of hair from which a gold sheet dangles till the end of braid, on which all zodiac signs are engraved. At the top, on the left and right of this cuuDaamaNi ornaments in the shape of sun and moon are pinned into hair, and at the end of braid three / five gold cups studded with hair like strands upakaca will be dangling. This set of braid's ornamentation is said to receive the solar energy to whole of the spine. So goes on and on the list of ornaments, to the delight of the girl wearing them and to the delight of the goldsmith making them.
Here there are five Raghava-s and only one kausalyaanandavardhana i.e., Rama. Then poet should have simply said 'Rama' instead of 'Raghava' but there are many Rama-s, Parashu Rama, and Bala Rama and suchlike, and on such calling as 'Rama...' Parashu Rama, who is scheduled to enter after marriage, may perhaps enter now, in a faux pas. Then the poet should have said dasharathaatmajam . Then, who will be that single soul from among the four boys of Dasharatha to come forward. And if all the four hear the calling, as 'oh, Raghava' all will reply in chorus "ok, it is I..." then what will happen? Avoiding all these irksome situations, the poet gave this stage-direction to Janaka that he should aim at the son of Kausalya, with a subtext, 'you are mothered by some human female, whereas my daughter is motherless, rather un-mothered, ayonijaa non-foetal is her origination, hence it is apt of you to not to belittle her, anytime and anywhere... and you have to keep faith with her, since she outshines in outperforming your task in this so-called incarnation...'
इयं सीता मम सुता सहधर्मचरी तव || १-७३-२६
प्रतीच्छ चैनां भद्रं ते पाणिं गृह्णीष्व पाणिना |
26b, 27a. iyam = this; siitaa = Seetha; mama = my; sutaa = daughter; sahadharmacarii = with acquits herself in duty; tava = your; pratiicCha enaam = in turn you wish for [wishfully take her back] her; ca = also bhadram te = safe betides you; paaNim = palm; gR^ihNiiSva = take into; paaNinaa = [your] palm.
"This is Seetha, my daughter, she acquits herself in whatever duty you undertake. Take her wishfully, let safeness betide you, take her palm into your palm..." [1-73-26b, 27a]
iyam= this [or, here]; siitaa= Seetha [stands]; mama sutaa= my, daughter [fair]; tava= thy; sahadharmacarii = to share, the duties of life; pratiicCha enaam= take from [father,] her [as bride]; ca= also; te bhadram = bliss betide! you; paaNim gR^ihNiiSva paaNinaa= join hand [into your] hand.
Here Sita stands, my daughter fair, / The duties of thy life to share. / Take from her father, take thy bride, / Join hand to hand, and bliss betide! / - Ralph T. H. Griffith
The above is very a convenient and readymade gist of that verse. But the three pronouns in the first stanza iyam, mama, tava 'this, mine, yours' are supposed to play havoc in deciphering the latent meaning of this verse. Let us look at some of them.
Seetha is very much there in the front of Rama, and Janaka might have shown her and told "take her...' Why this iyam i.e., "this" It is explained as below:
Janaka: This and this alone is Seetha, the unique, exceptional and earmarked one for you... do not confuse yourself by looking at Urmila, Maandavi and Shrutakiirti they are for your brothers
Rama: Why she alone is earmarked for me?
Janaka: Because she is 'Seetha '
Rama: What, you mean a furrow, or a sillion...
[Sillion is an old word for furrow, not found in dictionaries, but used by poet Hopkins in his 'The Windhover' sheer plod makes plough down sillion /]
Janaka: Yes, everything comes out of earth... from coal to gold, flora to fauna, rivers to ridges everything.... a morsel of food comes from a handful of mud in this mortal world.... your being, becoming and belonging in, are manifest only because of that earth and earth enables you to live on her without seeking any requital or reciprocation and earth is the symbol of enduing toleration, though you dig, dung or dredge it.... hence, Seetha is the symbol for mortal truth, and mortally tolerant womanhood and you people want to know the Unknown in the skies, but do not wish to know what that is right under your feet... vedaaham etam puruSham mahaantam aadityavarNam tamasaH parastaat | if the Supreme Person beyond darkness is knowable, and sages like Vishvamitra know you and tell that you are some Super Soul aham vedmi mahaatmaanam raamam satyaparaakramam - bala 19-14 likewise you shall know iyam siitaa, for she is somebody to match you... have you not mugged up Veda-s, Upanishad-s
Rama: Why not every bit of it... you name, it I tell it
Janaka: How does the fifth mantra of eighth topic in Chaandogya Upanishad reads?
Adi Shankara's commentary: There are three letters that denote the Absolute sa, ta, yam; and the syllable ii on sat is for easy pronunciation. The letter sa indicates immortality and the word ta mortality, and the syllable yam conditions and bridges both the above ' Ramanuja comment: The letter sat is immortality and the letter ti is mortality and yam conditions both, hence sattiyam is indicative of Spiritedness and non-spiritedness ' Madhvaacaarya says: sat, delivered immortal souls; ti yet to be delivered bounded souls; yam both the delivered and bounded souls.
Janaka: Seetha is that yam the conjunctive, conditioner, bridge between the mortal and immortal, setu - eSa setu iti vidhaaraNaa the presiding deity of cetana-acetana dynamic, static beings. oh, Rama, it is said in Vishnu Puraana that Seetha is your lookalike, minus your sky-blue complexion, raaghavatve bhavet siitaa... It is said in yet another scripture, yathaa mayaa jagat vyaaptam - svaruupeNa svabhaavataH | tayaa vyaaptam idam vishvam niyantrii ca tathaa iishvarii || 'as to how I am all pervading, likewise She, Goddess Lakshmi, is all pervading and the controller of the universe ' and if you want to establish yourself as the protector of this world, you have to take this and this Seetha alone, as she is the cause for the desired effect of yours and, she is from Mother Earth ratna-garbhaa and you are a sapphirine boy from a mother, and a sapphire shines only if it is studded in earth-given gold anargham api maaNikyam hemaashrayam apekShate otherwise you, your incarnation, your epic, your mission, why one or two, everything concerning you will be futile, and you have to return to your milky abode empty handed, and here on earth, every house breeds one or more Ravana-s
Rama: How am I to conclude 'this' as 'that...' I mean Goddess Lakshmi
Janaka: Certain aspects are to be inferred because they are unmanifest. Fire on the mountain is unmanifest but smoke is manifest, hence fire is inferred. So also, ayam iishvarii is manifest as iyam this girl... from siitaa furrow, sillion, a narrow trench in ground made by ploughshare... as a small seed manifests into a gigantic banyan tree, and from this the nature of her non-foetal birth, it is to be inferred likewise, and only because of it she is someone above mortals. Because you have come as a mortal she has to take birth as a mortal, as an inseparable entity of yours
Rama: Then why can't she fall from sky or from other planet?
Janaka: She cannot. Your connection with this earth is age-old and you love it. Because you love earth, she has to emerge from earth, a lovely act for you.
Rama: Then why mama sutaa... she can be fostered in any orphanage
Janaka: Not so. An auspicious thing or being requires a sanctum sanctorum... Mithila is one such... and Videha-s are not just kings of this part of land, but they are priests of pious or holy things like the bow of Shiva. You know the naming of vi-deha... it is not 'without bodies...' but transcending bodily affairs Thus she chose this as her background and as she presented herself to me as baby girl, I have look upon her as mama sutaa 'my daughter ' And many, many kings sought her hand in marriage, but I refused and they warred with me, whereby I had to call for the forces of gods to counterattack the enemy forces; perhaps, you might not have heard that humans can summon gods; thus gods are at my disposal; a prayer of mine brings them here, either for a war or for a ritual So, do not take me or my daughter Seetha, iyam siitaa mama sutaa as some ignoramus and insignificant dullards
Rama: Then why you want me to take back, as though she belonged to me for eons, but lost in a journey
Janaka: Yes, she is yours from ages unknown; I cannot donate her in kanyaa-daana 'bestowal of bride ' because your marriage is eternal. But you two have arrived here in human forms, so conduct yourselves in conformity with human customs.... that is why I tell pratiicCha enaaam ' take her back, wishfully ' for that saying of mine get no anger on me; bhadram te 'let safeness betide' you; by this act of yours paaNim gR^ihNiSva paaNinaa ' you take her palm into your palm ' that which is customary in human paaNigrahaNa-mahotsava 'wedding ceremony '; by the way, you always keep your consort in your heart hR^idaya kamala do not do such things as long as you are on earth for your incarnation will be disclosed.... just take her hand and let not this heavenly discourse be leaked out... lest Ravana may come to know that you are not human and it will be impossible for you to eliminate that evil, thereby
Likewise, let us, the readers of rAmAyaNa, keep this info about Rama undisclosed to Ravana, if any of us meet Ravana by chance....
And we now proceed to the human level import of this verse.
Janaka: 'iyam "this girl" who has --- mugdhamanoharamanoj~namohanaatmakasukumaarasoundaryalaavaNyaadau--- a beauty par excellence [and par problmatique beauty as well, for Ravana alone has got more words to extol her beauty, as in Ch. 46 Aranya ];
so, iyam "this one" is about whom you have heard from day one in the hermitage of Siddha, i.e., when you started towards Mithila;
hence, iyam "this one alone" is that girl who is on your psyche from the minute you broke that Shiva's bow, and whom you are envisioning praasaade praade ca pathi pathi ca saa pR^iShTataH saa purataH 'on verandas of multistoried buildings and in window ledges, on this street and that street, before you, behind you ' during these days of your stay in Mithila....
Rama: No, No, No, you are wrong... I did not aim at any girl when aiming to lift that old bow... sorry for your unilateral conclusion...
Janaka: No, my dear boy, the condition I stipulated before your touching that bow is bilateral... I clearly said that my daughter belongs to one who can lift that bow... you were quick enough to grab the girl, rather than the bow... and in that hastiness you even broke that bow... had you declined the girl, you should have declined to lift the bow, also... so, iyam siita was the only intention of yours when lifting that bow...
Rama; Maybe.. but we want high-born, high-bred girls --- not fatherless, motherless, birth-less orphans
Janaka: You seem to be a doubting Thomas... that's why I said mama sutaa 'my daughter ' when it is said mahataa tapasaa raama... ' by high degree ascesis Dasharatha obtained Rama.. what does it mean? So also, I too obtained and fostered this girl with much better ascesis [than your father], and even protected her from warring factions [only to give back to you ]; bythe way, the environ of Mithila itself is of utmost sanctity and piety... if we are to be lowly subjects, why your guru Vishvamitra brought you here, that too by foot don't think that you are taking this girl for your personal enjoyment, but it is for a caculated purpose... this girl meets that purpose and her wifehood, as well.... hence I said sahadharmacarii tava ' she will be in toe with your duties'
tava dharmasahacarii ' whatever is your duty that duty become hers too '..
Rama: Somehow there appears some cacoethes confusion from you, from all the sages, from my father and mothers, even
Janaka: Nothing of that sort is there... if you wish heartily then only you take her... I have not said siitaam dadaami 'I am donating Seetha ' but I said pratiicCha enaam 'take her, take her back ' or else, she will exit as she came and unfulfilled will be your mission... it is up to you to decide.... no compulsion whatsoever...
Rama: Then, let her take hold of my arrow and walk with me round the Altar of Fire, because, for Kshatriya-s that is the custom...
Janaka: I know, I know, but this marriage does not fit into any of the eight kinds of marriage prescribed for humans... hence I carefully said paaNim gR^ihNiiSva paaNinaa' take her palm into your palm '
The types of ancient marriages as laid down by scriptures are eight kinds. 1] braahmya: inviting a celibate scholar after completion of his Vedic studies, and offering a bride with due ceremony; 2] daiva: offering a bride to a ritwik when he is conducting a Vedic-ritual; 3] aarSa: giving the bride after donating a cow and ox for the success of Vedic-ritual; 4] praajaapatya: offering a bride without seeking anything from the bridegroom, to follow the course of dharma; 5] aasura: giving ample money to bride's party or to bride and marrying her at costs; 6] gaandharva: man and woman falling in love and marrying on their own, just out of lust and bodily pleasures; 7] raakShasa: if a bride or bride's part do not agree, by maltreating, torturing and terrorising them, and thereby seizing the bride; 8] paishaacika: while the girl is asleep, or making her drunk, or unconscious and then molesting her, by which she becomes a 'can't but' bride - a worst kind of marriage.
eteShu aShTasu vivaaheShu ayam vivaaho na kopi bhavitum arhati - tat uktalakShaNaabhaavaat | tathaa hi - na taavat braahmyaH iti - aahuuya daanaabhaavaat | na api daivaH - kShatriyasya aartivijyaasambhavat | na aarSha - kanyaapitroH gomithuna-godaanaabhaavaat | na api praajaapatyaH - viirya shulka iti kathanaat | na api aasuraH - kanyaapituH dravya- daanaabhaavaat | na api gaandharvaH parasparaanuraageNa samsargaabhaavaat | na api raakShasaH - chedanhananaadinaa prasahyakanyaaharaNaabhaavaat | na api paishaaciH - svaapapramaadaanyatam avasthaayuktayaaH | tasmaat kathamo ayam vivaaha iti cet - sahadharmacarii tava - iti uktyaa praajaapatya eva vivaahaH - dk
And when none of the eight is unsuitable for Seetha's wedding it is brought under the fourth praajaapatya- because sahadharmam carati iti praajaapatya - aashvalaayana | samyogamantraH praajaapatye sahadharmam caryataam - gautama | sahadharmam carataam iti praajaapatyam - bodhaayana | But here something is sought from the bridegroom, in the name of lifting the bow. But that is negated saying the 'seeking' is the seeking of material assets, not valour or bravery. It is namesake, and even the nomenclature that Seetha is the bounty for valour viiryashulkaais a namesake; kShatriyeShu viirya vara eva shreShTatvaat taadR^ishaya kanyaam pradaatum viirya parishodhanam kR^itam iti shulka iti kathanaat shulka-shabdaH aupacaarikaH | dk Hence this marriage is for implementation of righteousness and it is treated as extramundane and celebrated every year.
Rama: This marriage does not fit into any category! Then why this marriage at all!
Janaka: To be in tune with this world's tradition... however, this marriage technically comes under the category of praajaapatya
Rama: So, you adjusted the rule books... then why me, let her take my hand...
Janaka: The enjoyer has to grab the object of enjoyment, not vice versa... take her now and bhadram te and 'be blest '
Next, Janaka is asking the bridegroom like a poor Indian father to take a poor and motherless bride Seetha.
Janaka: iyam - 'this' girl is a simple match to you who broke the bow of Shiva;
siitaa' born in furrow' a motherless girl, hence, kindly be merciful towards her;
mama sutaa ' my daughter ' rather, a poor fellow's daughter; where I have always been engaged in rituals and ceremonies, thereby I may not have brought her up properly, and thereby if she does talk rashly or behave oddly, like an ill-bred girl, kindly tolerate and correct her;
sahadhrmacarii iva where iva is ' like ' just take her like your 'custom-bound consort ' and let her be useful in ceremonies and rituals, though not for pleasure trips and excursions ';
pratiicCha enaam 'take her ' where the bridegrooms usually woo, court and date girls, send many messages to her parents asking for that girl in marriage; but, this girl being an uncommon one, I am begging you to take her;
paaNim gR^ihNiiSva paaNinaa you take her hand as she is hesitating to take your hand, for your hand is strong enough to break an unbreakable bow, she is fearing to take your hand, lest her arm too will be broken;
bhadram te 'be blest ' when you honour our appeal
And there are many, many more shades of meanings derived from this verse, but all culminate to say - 'you two are made for each other '
पतिव्रता महभागा छायेवानुगता सदा || १-७३-२७
इत्युक्त्वा प्राक्षिपद्राजा मंत्रपूतं जलं तदा |
27b, 28a. mahabhaagaa = prosperous [Seetha will be]; pativrataa = husband devout; sadaa Chaayaa iva = always, shadow, like; anugataa = follow [you]; iti uktvaa = thus, saying; raajaa = king; tadaa = then; mantrapuutam jalam = hymn sanctified, water; praakShipat = poured forth.
"She who is prosperous and husband-devout, will always be abiding you like your own shadow..." So saying that king Janaka then poured forth water into the palms of Rama, which is sanctified with hymns. [1-73-27b, 28a]
Pouring water at the time of donation into the donee's hand symbolises the free flowing will of the donor. The 'shadow' expresses nitya-sambandhatva 'ever related entity...' Or, a trace of His liilaa-vibhuuti, maayaa. Though they are living separately so far, that farness is now washed off by this holy water.
साधु साध्विति देवानामृषीणां वदतां तदा || १-७३-२८
देवदुंदुभिनिर्घोषः पुष्पवर्षो महानभूत् |
28b, 29a. tadaa = then; saadhu saadhu iti = nice, fine, thus; vadataam = while saying [exclaiming]; devaanaam R^iSiiNaam = [sounds ] of gods, sages; devadundubhinirghoSaH = drumming heavenly drums; mahaan puSpavarSaH abhuut = occurred great flower showers.
Then there occurred great flower-showers from firmament, while sages and gods staying in firmament have exclaimed, "nice... fine..." to the drumbeats of heavenly drums. [1-3-28b, 29a]
What happened to these gods when boyish Rama eliminated Tataka and others? Are they any lesser feats than this marriage? And why this drumming and showering flowers and blessings, when it is 'just' a human's marriage? Now the cause for the effect is conjoined to Rama to effectuate their plea to Brahma. If the entire arsenal given by Vishvamitra is set-aside for a moment, the 'present' now presented by Janaka is the ultimate weapon for the use against Ravana. aprameyam hi tat tejo yasya saa janakaatmajaa 'unlimited is the energy, to whom Janaka's daughter belongs...' Rama is the instrumental cause in eliminating Ravana, whereas Seetha is the efficient cause for it. Lanka is ruined by Seetha, through Hanuma with the help of Fire-god, but not by Rama, or all of the monkeys put together. And Rama eliminates the half-dead Ravana. There are some more flower-showers and drumbeats and dances, later.
एवं दत्त्वा सुतां सीतां मंत्रोदकपुरस्कृताम् || १-७३-२९
अब्रवीज्जनको राजा हर्षेणाभिपरिप्लुतः |
29b, 30a. janakaH raajaa = Janaka, the king; evam = in that way; mantrodakapuraskR^itaam = she who is sanctified with hymn water; sutaam siitaam dattvaa = on handing over his daughter Seetha; harSeNa = by enthusiasm; abhipariplutaH = completely over flooded [overwhelmed]; abraviit = said [this.]
On handing over his daughter Seetha who is duly sanctified with sanctified waters, King Janaka is completely overwhelmed with exhilaration for the successful performance of his bit as a father and he said this. [1-73-29b, 30a]
लक्ष्मणागच्छ भद्रं ते ऊर्मिलामुद्यतां मया || १-७३-३०
प्रतीच्छ पाणिं गृह्णीष्व मा भूत् कालस्य पर्ययः |
30b, 31a. lakSmaNa aagacCha = Lakshmana, come on; mayaa udyataam = by me decided to be [- to be given to you]; uurmilaam = Urmila; pratiicCha = you take - or, say yes; paaNim gR^ihNiiSva = [her] palm, you take; kaalasya paryayaH maa bhuut = lapse not the time; te bhadram = you be safe.
Come on, Lakshmana, safe betides you... say yes to Urmila, the one who is decided by me to be given to you... take her palm into yours... lapse not the time... [1-73-30b, 31a]
When Bharata is the elder of Lakshmana, how Lakshmana is called now... is a lingering doubt. That rule 'the elder brother's marriage is first...' does not apply if the brothers are from co-wives: pitR^ivyaputre saapatne paranaariiShu teShu vaa | vivaahadaanayajnaadau parivedo na duuShaNam || 'the elderliness among the sons of father's brothers or mothers co-wives, or other sons from other wives, do not count in their marriages, donation ceremonies, of Vedic-rituals... an younger one can be called first on such occasions...'
तमेवमुक्त्वा जनको भरतं चाभ्यभाषत || १-७३-३१
गृहाण पाणिं माण्डव्याः पाणिना रघुनंदन |
31b-32a. janakaH tam evam uktvaa = Janaka, having said that way to him [to Lakshmana] ; bharatam ca abhyabhaaSata = addressed to Bharata, also; raghunandana = oh the delight of Raghu-s - Bharata; paaNinaa = by palm; maaNDavyaaH paaNim = Maandavi's, palm; gR^ihaaNa = take.
Janaka having said to Lakshmana that way, he also addressed Bharata, "Oh, Bharata, the delight of Raghu-s, take Maandavi's palm into your palm... [1-73-31b-32a]
शत्रुघ्नं चापि धर्मात्मा अब्रवीन्मिथिलेश्वरः || १-७३-३२
श्रुतकीर्तेर्महाबाहो पाणिं गृह्णीष्व पाणिना |
32b, 33a. dharmaaatmaa = honourable [Janaka]; mithileshvaraH = Mithila's king - Janaka; shatrughnam ca api = to Shatrughna, also, even; abraviit = said; mahaabaaho = oh dextrous [Shatrughna]; paaNinaa = with your palm; shrutakiirteH paaNim gR^ihNiiSva = you take Shrutakiirti's, palm.
That honourable king of Mithila even said to Shatrughna, "oh, dextrous Shatrughna, take the palm of Shrutakiirti into yours... [1-73-32b, 33a]
सर्वे भवन्तः सौम्याश्च सर्वे सुचरितव्रताः || १-७३-३३
पत्नीभिः सन्तु काकुत्स्था मा भूत्कालस्य पर्ययः |
33b, 34a. kaakutsthaa = oh Rama, Lakshmana, Bharata, Shatrughna [brothers]; bhavantaH sarve = you, all; saumyaaH ca = tender-hearted, also; sarve sucaritavrataaH = all, well behaved, well-intentioned ones; patniibhiH santu = you be with wives [a happy married life to you all] ; maa bhuut kaalasya paryayaH = not, there be, time's, lapse.
"Oh, Rama, Lakshmana, Bharata, Shatrughna ... you all are tender-hearted, well-behaved and well-intentioned brothers from Kakutstha lineage... without lapse of time take up other ceremonies..." So said Janaka to bridegrooms. [1-73-33b, 34a]
जनकस्य वचः श्रुत्वा पाणीन् पाणिभिरस्पृशन् || १-७३-३४
चत्वारस्ते चतसॄणां वसिष्ठस्य मते स्थिताः |
34b, 35a. te catvaaraH = those [bridegrooms,] [all] four of them; janakasya vacaH shrutvaa = on hearing Janaka's words; vasiSThasya mate sthitaaH = abiding in Vashishta's opinion [in orchestration of marriage] ; paaNibhiH = with palms; catasR^INaam = of [all] four [brides]; paaNiin = palms; aspR^ishan = touched - taken into their palms - all are palminpalmed.
All the four bridegrooms are palminpalmed with all the four brides, paying heed to Janaka's words, and abiding in Vashishta's orchestration of Vedic hymns and procedures. [1-73-34b, 35a]
The word 'palminpalmed' may look oddish, but it is in fashion with the verb 'arminarmed' invented by poet Roger McGhou.
अग्निं प्रदक्षिणं कृत्वा वेदिं राजानमेव च || १-७३-३५
ऋषींश्चैव महात्मानः सहभार्या रघूद्वहाः |
यथोक्तेन तथा चक्रुर्विवाहं विधिपूर्वकम् || १-७३-३६
35b, 36. mahaatmaanaH = great souled [bridegrooms]; raghuudvahaaH = those who emerged from Raghu - four brothers; sahabhaaryaa = with wives; agnim = to Ritual-fire; vedim = to Altar of Fire; raajaanam eva ca = king Janaka, also, that way; R^iSiin ca eva = to sages, also thus; pradakSiNam = circumambulations; kR^itvaa = on performing; tathaa = thus; yathaa uktena = as, said [directed by Vashishta]; vidhipuurvakam = consistent with custom; vivaaham = marriage; cakruH = thus, performed [the deeds of ritual]; [they are wed.]
On performing circumambulations along with their wives around the Ritual-fire, and around the Altar of Fire, and that way, around king Janaka, the awarder of wives, and around sages as well for they conducted the marriages well, those great-souled bridegrooms that have emerged from Raghu's dynasty on performing further deeds of ritual consistent with custom as directed by Vashishta, they are all wed. [1-73-35b, 36]
Firstly Vashishta enkindled the holy fire and offered oblations in it for the wellbeing of Rama and his brothers, say the bridegrooms. Next, another round of enkindling of holy fire took place in which Rama and brothers have offered marriage time oblations. After accepting the palms of brides, they made circumambulations, and then each couple established its own ritual fire and offered oblations into it. Then each couple had oblated rice-flakes into the fire, and again performed circumambulations to that Ritual-fire, respectively. Thus, the marriage is not a handshake like one-minute affair, as they all shall be before fire, daylong.
दिव्यदुन्दुभिनिर्घोषैर्गीतवादित्रनिःस्वनैः || १-७३-३७
ननृतुश्चाप्सरःसंघा गन्धर्वाश्च जगुः कलम् |
विवाहे रघुमुख्यानां तदद्भुतमदृश्यत || १-७३-३८
37. raghumukhyaanaam vivaahe = in marriage of celebrated Raghu's decedents; antarikSaat = from firmament; subhaasvaraa = highly dazzling; mahati puSpavR^iSTiH aasiit = rich flower shower, is there [occurred]; divyadundubhinirghoSaiH = with drumbeats of divine drums; giitavaaditraniHsvanaiH = with vocal and instrumental music; apsaraHsanghaaH nanR^ituH = promenades of apsara-s danced; gandharvaaH ca kalam jaguH = even, gandharva-s tunefully sang; tat adbhutam adR^ishyata = that, charming spectacle, appeared.
There occurred rich and highly dazzling flower showers from firmament, and that ambience is filled with the drumbeats of divine drums and with vocal and instrumental music, and promenades of apsara-s danced, and even the gandharva-s sang tunefully, and because it is the marriage of celebrated bridegrooms from Raghu's dynasty, such a charming spectacle is envisioned.. [1-73-37, 38]
ईदृशे वर्तमाने तु तूर्योद्घुष्टनिनादिते |
त्रिरग्निं ते परिक्रम्य ऊहुर्भार्या महौजसः || १-७३-३९
39. iidR^ishe = this kind of; tuuryodghuSTaninaadite = reverberating by trumpeting trumpet [harmonious music of dance, vocal and instrumental]; vartamaane = in ongoingness mahaujasaH = highly resplendent ones; te = those brothers; triH = thrice; agnim parikramya = circumambulated the fire; bhaaryaaH uuhuH = married wives.
In this kind of ongoingness of harmonious music of vocal, instrumental and that of dancers, those great resplendent brothers married their wives on circumabulating the Ritual-fire fire thrice. [1-73-39]
अथोपकार्यां जग्मुस्ते स दारा रघुनंदनाः |
राजाप्यनुययौ पश्यन् सर्षिसंघः सबान्धवः || १-७३-४०
40. atha = then; te raghunandanaaH = those, Raghu's legatees; sadaaraa = with wives; upakaaryaam jagmuH = went to visitatorial-palace; raajaa api = king Dasharatha, even; saRSisanghaH = with assemblages of sages; sabaandhavaH = with kinfolks; pashyan = with all eyes for; anuyayau = went after.
Then those legatees of Raghu went to their visitatorial-palace with their wives, followed by king Dasharatha along with the assemblages of sages, kinfolks, queens and wives included, and Dasharatha feasted his eyes on sons and daughter-in-laws. [1-73-40]
इति वाल्मीकिरामायणे आदिकाव्ये बालकाण्डे त्रिसप्ततितमः सर्गः
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© May, 2003, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised : January 05]